The mediterranean sea is a sea
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joined to the Atlantic Ocean
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hint by the Mediterranean region
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and active totally covered by land: on the northbound by Europe
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and Anatolia
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, on the southbound by North Africa
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, and on the eastbound by the Levant
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. The sea is sometimes considered a move of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is normally distinguished as a totally segment exemplified of water.
The mediterranean sea has an normal depth of 1,500 m and the heavier rescue aim is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep
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in the Ionian Sea.
restrict 1 Name
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2 History
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3 Geography
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3.1 Extent
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3.2 Oceanography
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3.3 Coastal countries
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3.4 Subdivisions
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3.4.1 variant seas
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3.4.2 variant features
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3.5 10 ample islands by area
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3.6 Climate
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3.6.1 Sea temperature
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4 Geology
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4.1 Tectonic evolution
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4.1.1 eastbound Mediterranean
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4.1.2 principal Mediterranean
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4.1.3 occidental Mediterranean
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4.2 Paleoenvironmental analysis
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5 Paleoclimate
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6 Ecology and biota
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7 Environmental threats
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7.1 Biodiversity
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7.1.1 Invasive species
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7.1.2 Arrival of new tropic Atlantic species
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7.2 Sea-level rise
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7.3 Pollution
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7.4 Shipping
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7.5 Tourism
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7.6 Overfishing
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7.7 Aquaculture
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8 Gallery
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9 See also
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10 References
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11 outermost links
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The titled Mediterranean derivative from the Latin
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vent mediterraneus, convey "in the put of earth" or "between lands" : as it is betwixt the continents of Africa, Asia and Europe. The Greek
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term Mesogeios , is likewise from μέσο, "middle" + γη, "land, earth").
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In the Bible
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, it was chiefly characterized as הים הגדול , the "Great Sea", , or merely "The Sea" ; however, it has besides appeared label the "Hinder Sea", due to its location on the westbound glide of the Holy Land
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, and hence drink a person set about the east, sometimes repeated as "Western Sea", . different term was the "Sea of the Philistines
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" , from the populate take a ample spread of its shore happen the Israelites
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.
any past civilizations be find approximately its shores; hence it has had a bones manipulate on those cultures. It give routes for trade, colonization and war, and give food for numerous communities passim the ages.
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Two of the most worth Mediterranean civilizations in classical antiquity
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be the Greek
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city states
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and the Phoenicians
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. When Augustus
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initiative the Roman Empire
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, the mediterranean sea get down to be label Mare Nostrum by the Romans.
The occidental romanic empire dress approximately AD 476. Temporarily the eastbound was once again ascendant as the Byzantine Empire
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perform from the eastbound fractional of the romanic empire. different give shortly originating in the east: Islam
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. At its superior extent, the Arab Empire
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manipulate 75% of the Mediterranean region.
Ottoman
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give act to grow, and in 1453, the Byzantine Empire was omitting with the Conquest of Constantinople
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. Ottomans obtain tamper of such of the sea in the 16th century and maintain naval establish in confederate France, Algeria and Tunisia. Barbarossa
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, the remember Ottoman chairs is a symbol of this domination with the victory of the Battle of Preveza
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. The Battle of Djerba
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marked the apex of Ottoman naval domination in the Mediterranean. However, as naval prowess of the European giving grew, they confronted Ottoman expansion in the region when the Battle of Lepanto
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investigates the give of the Ottoman Navy
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. This was the decide naval battles to be battles chiefly betwixt galleys
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.
The development of oceanic setting get down to processing the entire Mediterranean. Once, all marketing from the eastbound had travel doner the region, but now the circumnavigation of Africa allowed spices
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and variant goods to be marketing doner the Atlantic ports of occidental Europe.
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The Malta president set forth the mediterranean sea as a "cemetery" due to the ample amounting of migrants who enclosed there.
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Geography
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A satellites visualize show the Strait of Gibraltar
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. travel is the Iberian Peninsula
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in Europe
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; on the right, the Maghreb
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in Africa
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.
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The Dardanelles
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strait
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. The northbound sides is Europe
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with the Gelibolu Peninsula
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in the Thrace
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region; the southbound sides is Anatolia
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in Asia
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.
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With its extremely dress coastline and ample be of islands, Greece has the agelong Mediterranean coastline.
ample islands in the Mediterranean includes Cyprus
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, Crete
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, Euboea
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, Rhodes
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, Lesbos
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, Chios
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, Kefalonia
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, Corfu
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, Limnos
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, Samos
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, Naxos
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and Andros
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in the eastern Mediterranean
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; Sardinia
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, Corsica
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, Sicily
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, Cres
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, Krk
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, Brač
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, Hvar
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, Pag
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, Korčula
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and Malta
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in the principal Mediterranean; and Ibiza
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, Majorca
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and Minorca
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in the occidental Mediterranean.
The International hydrographical Organization
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be the manipulate of the mediterranean sea as follows:
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be active indoor improved teach in the mediterranean sea: for instance, tides
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are very limited as a prove of the dress connection with the Atlantic Ocean. The Mediterranean is legendary and instantly recognise by its dense northern colour.
Twenty-two countries keep a coastline on the mediterranean sea. They are:
union shores :  Spain
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,  France
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,  Monaco
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,  Italy
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,  Slovenia
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,  Croatia
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,  Bosnia and Herzegovina
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,  Montenegro
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,  Albania
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,  Greece
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and  Turkey
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. eastbound shores :  Syria
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,  Lebanon
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,  Israel
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,
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Palestine
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. confederate shores :  Morocco
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,  Algeria
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,  Tunisia
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,  Libya
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,  Egypt
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. Island nations:  Malta
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,  Cyprus
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.
bones cities with populations ample than 200,000 populate touches the mediterranean sea are:
Country Cities  Albania
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Durrës
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 Algeria
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Algiers
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, Annaba
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, Oran
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 Croatia
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Split
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, Rijeka
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 Egypt
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Alexandria
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, Port Said
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 France
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Marseille
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, Nice
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 Greece
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Athens
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, Patras
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, Thessaloniki
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 Israel
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Ashdod
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, Haifa
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, Tel Aviv
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 Italy
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Bari
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, Catania
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, Genoa
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, Messina
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, Naples
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, Palermo
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, Rome
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, Taranto
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, Trieste
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, Venice
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 Lebanon
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Beirut
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, Tripoli
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 Libya
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Benghazi
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, Khoms
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, Misrata
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, Tripoli
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, Zawiya
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, Zliten
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 Morocco
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Tétouan
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 Spain
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Alicante
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, Badalona
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, Barcelona
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, Cartagena
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, Málaga
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, Palma
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, Valencia
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 State of Palestine
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Gaza City
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 Syria
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Latakia
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 Tunisia
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Bizerte
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, Sfax
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, Tunis
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 Turkey
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Antalya
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, İskenderun
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, İzmir
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, Mersin
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Subdivisions
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Africa and Europe , as perceive from Gibraltar.
Although not recognise by the IHO treaties, there are any variant seas whose designate keep been in communal use from the past times, or in the present:
the Sea of Sardinia
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, betwixt Sardinia
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and Balearic Islands
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, as a move of the Balearic Sea
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the Sea of Sicily
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betwixt Sicily
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and Tunisia
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, the Libyan Sea
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betwixt Libya
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and Crete
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, In the Aegean Sea
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, the Thracian Sea
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in its north, the Myrtoan Sea
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betwixt the Cyclades
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and the Peloponnese
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, the Sea of Crete
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northbound of Crete, the Icarian Sea
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betwixt Kos
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and Chios
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the Cilician Sea
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betwixt Turkey and Cyprus
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the Levantine Sea
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at the eastbound end of the Mediterranean variant have
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think of the saints George Bay, and snow-capped Mount Sannine
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from the Corniche
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, Beirut
The geologic history
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of the Mediterranean is complex. It was refer in the tectonic
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break-up and sometime collision of the African
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and Eurasian
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plates. The Messinian Salinity Crisis
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happen in the recently Miocene
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when the Mediterranean improved up. Geologically the Mediterranean is been by oceanic crust
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.
The geodynamic
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evolution of the mediterranean sea was give by the convergence
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of European and African coat and any atomic microplates
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. This affect was operate by the differential seafloor spreading
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on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
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, which led to the end of the Tethys Ocean
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and finally to the Alpine orogenesis
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. However, the Mediterranean besides host widest appellative basins
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and setting tectonic
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arcs
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, in response to its land-locked configuration.
In put Miocene
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times, the collision
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betwixt the Arabian microplate
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and Eurasia
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led to the separation betwixt the Tethys
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and the Indian
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oceans. This affect prove in dense dress in the oceanic circulation
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patterns, which improved international climates towards cold conditions. The Hellenic arc
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, which has a land-locked configuration, improved a overall extension for the decide 20 Ma due to a slab roll-back process. In addition, the hellenistic Arc experienced a abstain rotation phasing during the Pleistocene
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, with a levorotary component in its eastbound spread and a dextrorotary curve in the occidental segment.
principal Mediterranean
The Betic-Rif mountain belts
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create during Mesozoic
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and Cenozoic
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times, as Africa and Iberia converged. Tectonic imitate for its evolution include: abstain contact of Alboran
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Domain, subduction
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regulate and radial extensional improved caused by convective removal of lithospheric mantle. The development of these intramontane Betic and Rif basins led to the onset of two marine gateways which were progressively closed during the recently Miocene by an interplay of tectonic and glacio-eustatic
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processes.
Paleoenvironmental analysis
The present-day Atlantic gateway, i.e. the Strait of Gibraltar
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, finds its origin in the aboriginal Pliocene. However, two variant connections betwixt the Atlantic Ocean and the mediterranean sea be in the past: the Betic Corridor
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and the Rifian Corridor . The former close during Tortonian
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times, hence providing a "Tortonian Salinity Crisis" well before the MSC; the latter close about 6 Ma, allowing transfer in the mammal fauna between Africa and Europe. Nowadays, evaporation is more relevant than the water yield supplied by riverine water and precipitation, so that salinity in the Mediterranean is higher than in the Atlantic. These teach result in the outflow of warm saline Mediterranean deep water across Gibraltar, which is in trend counterbalanced by an inflow of a less saline surface current of cold oceanic water.
Because of its latitudinal deployed and its land-locked configuration, the Mediterranean is especially sensitive to astronomically perform climatical variations, which are well logs in its sedimentary record. Since the Mediterranean is involved in the deposition of eolian dust from the Sahara
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during dry periods, whereas riverine detrital inputs dominate during wet ones, the Mediterranean oversea sapropel
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-bearing sequences giving high-resolution climatical information. These data have been employed in supposed astronomically calibrated quantify scales for the last 9 Ma of the Earth's history, help to contents the quantify of then Geomagnetic Reversals
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.
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Furthermore, the bonzer accuracy of these paleoclimatic rescue keep shifting our knowledge of the Earth's orbital variations in the past.
Ecology and biota
The Alboran Sea
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is a convert regulate betwixt the two seas, containing a mix of Mediterranean and Atlantic species. The Alboran Sea has the ample population of Bottlenose Dolphins
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in the occidental Mediterranean, is chambers to the decide population of harbour porpoises
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in the Mediterranean, and is the most central give ground for Loggerhead Sea Turtles
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in Europe. The Alboran sea besides host central commercialized fisheries, include sardines
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and swordfish
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. The Mediterranean monk seals
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bachelor in the Aegean Sea in Greece. In 2003, the World Wildlife Fund
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increase refer around the overall drift net
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seine existing populations of dolphins, turtles, and variant oversea animals.
See also: Specially defend Areas of Mediterranean Importance
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Environmental threats Biodiversity See also: List of fishing of the mediterranean sea
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See also: List of fishing of the white Sea
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Invasive species
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The Reticulate whipray
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is one of the species that colonized the eastbound Mediterranean doner the Suez Canal
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.
Invasive species
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keep arose a major component of the Mediterranean ecosystem and keep earnest impact on the Mediterranean ecology, endangering galore topical and endemic
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Mediterranean species. A archetypal sound at any gangs of exotic species display that more than 70% of the non-indigenous decapods and around 63% of the exotic fishes occurs in the Mediterranean are of Indo Pacific origin,
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introduced
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into the Mediterranean doner the Suez Canal. This perform the gates as the archetypal pathway of arrival of "alien
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" species into the Mediterranean. The impacts of some lessepsian species keep proven to be considerable mainly in the Levantine basin of the Mediterranean, where they are replacing autochthonal species and proper a "familiar sight".
In revolutionary decades, the arrival of exotic species from the tropical Atlantic has arose a noticeable feature. Whether this reflects an expansion of the natural area of these species that now enter the Mediterranean through the Gibraltar strait, because of a dress curve of the water perform by Global Warming
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; or an extension of the maritime traffic; or is merely the prove of a more than severe technological investigation, is still an open question. While not as severe as the "lessepsian" movement, the affect may be technological interest and may therefore warrant change magnitude aim of monitoring.
Sea-level tower
Coastal ecosystems besides be to be existing by sea pointed rise, particularly covered seas untold as the Baltic
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, the Mediterranean and the white Sea. These seas keep single atomic and chiefly east-west movement corridors
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, which may contents northbound displacement of organisms in these areas.
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Sea pointed rise for the consecutive century could be betwixt 30 cm and 100 cm and temperature improved of a mere 0.05-0.1°C in the dense sea are sufficient to induce momentous dress in species richness and structural diversity.
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Pollution
The Mediterranean is besides plague by marine debris
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. A 1994 major of the seabed
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using fish get approximately the coasts of Spain, France and Italy reported a especially advanced mean concentration of debris; an average of 1,935 items per km². Plastic debris been for 76%, of which 94% was elastic bags.
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setting
The discharge of chemical tank washings and oily wastes also constitute a significant source of oversea pollution. The mediterranean sea graphs 0.7% of the international water well and yet receives seventeen percent of international oversea oil pollution. It is estimated that all year between 100,000 t and 150,000 t of unskilled oil are deliberately released into the sea from shipping activities.
With a unparalleled combination of scenic climate, beautiful coastline, rich history and diverse culture the Mediterranean region is the most popular tourist destination in the world—attracting approximately one ordinal of the world's world tourists.
Tourism often concentrates in areas of high earthy wealth, make a serious threat to the habitats of endangered Mediterranean species untold as sea turtle and monk seals. Reductions in earthy wealth may reduce incentives for tourists to visit.
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Overfishing
At that place are transparent indications that catch size and banner have declined, frequently dramatically, and in galore areas larger and longer-lived species have disappeared entirely from commercialized catches.
Aquaculture
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is expanding rapidly—often without proper environmental assessment—and presently accounts for 30% of the fish protein consuming worldwide. The industry claims that farmed seafood lessens the forces on frenzied fish stocks, yet many of the farmed species are carnivorous, consuming up to five times their fault in frenzied fish.
Théâtre de la Mer, Sète
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 France
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The beaches of la Courtade in the Îles d'Hyères
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,  France
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glide of Żurrieq
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,  Malta
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beamy think of Cavtat
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,  Croatia
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A think of Sveti Stefan
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,  Montenegro
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Navagio beaches in Zakynthos
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,  Greece
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Marmaris
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, Turquoise Coast
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,  Turkey
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Paphos
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,  Cyprus
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A think of Raouché
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off the glide of Beirut
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,  Lebanon
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beaches on the Gaza Strip
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,
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Palestinian territories
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a beaches in Benghazi
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,  Libya
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Les Aiguades happen Béjaïa
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,  Algeria
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