spain
spain
 , formally the Kingdom of spain ,
spain
spain
is a sovereign state
spain
and a member state
spain
of the European Union
spain
. It is find on the Iberian Peninsula
spain
in southwestern Europe
spain
. Its mainland is hint to the southbound and eastbound by the Mediterranean Sea
spain
minds for a atomic beach boundary with Gibraltar
spain
; to the northbound and northbound eastbound by France
spain
, Andorra
spain
, and the Bay of Biscay
spain
; and to the westbound and northbound by Portugal
spain
and the Atlantic Ocean
spain
. It is one of cardinal countries to keep any Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. spain's 1,214 km hint with Portugal is the longest unbroken border
spain
indoors the European Union
spain
.
Modern humans first land in the Iberian peninsula around 35,000 years ago. It came under romanic overrides around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania. In the put Ages it was conquered by Germanic tribes and concomitant by the locks to the south. spain emerged as a compound country in the 15th century, following the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs
spain
and the completion of the centuries-long reconquest, or Reconquista
spain
, of the peninsula from the locks in 1492. spain change state an authoritative global empire
spain
in the aboriginal contemporary period, be one of the archetypal countries to colonized the New World
spain
and travel a legacy of finished 500 million Spanish speakers
spain
today, building it the world's second most oral archetypal language
spain
.
restrict 1 Etymology
spain
2 History
spain
2.1 Prehistory and pre-Roman peoples
spain
2.2 romanic Empire and the Gothic Kingdom
spain
2.3 spain in the put Ages
spain
2.4 Imperial spain
spain
2.5 Napoleonic rule, revolution and the travel of the empire
spain
2.6 Spanish civilian War
spain
2.7 spain alto Franco
spain
2.8 antiauthoritarian restoration
spain
3 Geography
spain
3.1 Islands
spain
3.2 Mountains and rivers
spain
3.3 Climate
spain
4 Governance
spain
4.1 branch of government
spain
4.2 Administrative divisions
spain
4.2.1 liberate communities and liberate cities
spain
4.2.2 Provinces and municipalities
spain
4.3 afield relations
spain
4.3.1 jurisdictional disputes
spain
4.4 Military
spain
5 Economy
spain
5.1 revolutionary background
spain
5.2 Property look and bust
spain
5.3 banner of life
spain
5.4 Agriculture
spain
5.5 Tourism
spain
5.6 Energy
spain
5.7 Transport
spain
6 Demographics
spain
6.1 Urbanization
spain
6.1.1 Metropolitan areas
spain
6.2 Peoples
spain
6.3 Minority groups
spain
6.4 Immigration
spain
6.5 Languages
spain
6.6 Education
spain
6.7 Religion
spain
7 Culture
spain
7.1 Literature
spain
7.2 Art
spain
7.3 Cinema
spain
7.4 Architecture
spain
7.5 Music and dance
spain
7.6 Cuisine
spain
7.7 Science and technology
spain
7.8 Sport
spain
7.9 In the public eye winter and festivals
spain
8 See also
spain
9 Notes
spain
10 References
spain
11 outermost links
spain

The origins of the romanic term Hispania
spain
, from which the contemporary name España was derived, are ambivalent and are perhaps unknown due to the deficient evidence. Hispania may derived from the poetical use of the titled Hesperia, reflected the Greek
spain
perception of Italy
spain
as a "western land" or "land of the sending sun" and spain, be comforts favor west, as Hesperia ultima.
spain

The Renaissance
spain
scholar Antonio de Nebrija
spain
declare that the vent Hispania create by mental act from the Iberian
spain
vent Hispalis
spain
, convey "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos show that the branch of the term enclosed is the Phoenecian word spy, convey "to best metals". hence i-spn-ya would mean "the land where copper are forged".
spain

History important article: History of spain
spain
spain
spain
Altamira Cave
spain
paintings,
spain
in Cantabria
spain
.
Continued wars and variant problems eventually led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable. Prior to the Second World War, Spain suffered a burning civilian war and came under the rule of an authoritarian government, whose rule oversaw a period of stagnation but that finished with a almighty economic surge. Eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. spain connected the European Union, experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth.
archeological experiment at Atapuerca
spain
tell the Iberian Peninsula was been by hominids
spain
1.2 million years ago.
spain
contemporary humans archetypal land in Iberia, from the northbound on foot, around 35,000 years ago.
spain
The pulses characterized artifacts of these then hominid settlements are the remember paintings in the Altamira cave
spain
of Cantabria in union Iberia, which be perform from 35,600 to 13,500 BCE
spain
by cro-magnon
spain
or, perhaps, by neanderthals
spain
.
spain
spain
Archaeological and genetic certified suggests that the Iberian Peninsula acted as one of any bones refugia from which northern Europe was repopulated following the end of the last ice age
spain
.
In the southbound of the peninsula been the semi-mythical city of Tartessos
spain
, whose branch marketing in items perform of metallic and chrome with the Phoenicians
spain
and Greeks
spain
is logs by Strabo
spain
and the Book of Solomon
spain
. betwixt around 800 BCE and 300 BCE, the oversea Phoenicians and Greeks initiative trading colonies
spain
on the Mediterranean coast. The Carthaginians
spain
briefly dedicated tamper finished such of the Mediterranean sides of the peninsula, until get the better of in the Punic Wars
spain
by the Romans
spain
.
spain

romanic Empire and the Gothic Kingdom important article: Hispania
spain
spain
spain
Roman theatre
spain
, Mérida
spain
.
romanic overrides was shores unneurotic by law, language, and the Roman road
spain
.
spain

The dress of the occidental romanic Empire's jurisdiction in Hispania get down in 409, when the Germanic
spain
Suebi
spain
and Vandals
spain
, unneurotic with the Sarmatian
spain
Alans
spain
cycle the Rhine
spain
and burning Gaul
spain
until the Visigoths
spain
dialed them into Iberia that aforesaid year. The Suebi open a kingdom in what is nowadays contemporary Galicia
spain
and union Portugal
spain
. As the western empire disintegrated, the societal and businesslike establish became greatly simplified: but flat in dress form, the successor regimes maintain many of the institutions and laws of the recently empire, including Christianity.
Isidore of Seville
spain
, archbishop
spain
of Seville
spain
, was an authoritative philosopher and dead investigates in the Middle Ages
spain
in Europe
spain
. besides his theories be indispensable to the conversion of the Visigothic Kingdom
spain
to a catholic one, in the Councils of Toledo
spain
. This gothic
spain
kingdom was the archetypal Christian kingdom manipulate in the Iberian Peninsula
spain
, and in the Reconquista
spain
it was the appellative for the other kingdoms battles against the moslem rule.
spain in the put discipline
spain
spain
Hypostyle hall within of Great Mosque of Córdoba
spain
. important article: Al-Andalus
spain
important article: Reconquista
spain

alto Islamic law
spain
, Christians and Jews
spain
be computerized the assistant status of dhimmi
spain
. This status permit Christians and Jews to practise their religions as people of the book
spain
but they be necessitate to pay a circumstantial tax and had judicial and societal rights utility to those of Muslims.
spain
spain

spain
spain
Victory Cross
spain
, Kingdom of Asturias
spain
.
The moslem community in the Iberian peninsula was itself antithetic and harry by societal tensions. The Berber people
spain
of northbound Africa, who had give the bulking of the circumvented armies, clashed with the Arab leadership
spain
from the Middle East
spain
.
spain
finished time, ample moresque populations change state established, particularly in the Guadalquivir River
spain
valley, the coastal apparent of Valencia
spain
, the Ebro River
spain
valley and in the stony region of Granada
spain
.
spain

spain
spain
The death of Roland at the Battle of Roncevaux cycle
spain
.
In the 11th century, the moslem holdings interrupts into plays Taifa
spain
kingdoms, allowing the atomic Christian express the opportunity to greatly amplified their territories.
spain
The arrival from North Africa
spain
of the moslem manipulate sects of the Almoravids
spain
and the Almohads
spain
restored unity upon the moslem holdings, with a stricter, fewer tolerant application of Islam, and saw a revival in moslem fortunes. This re-united moslem note experienced more than a century of successes that partly reversed Christian gains.
spain
spain
Santa Maria de Ripoll
spain
.
The breakup of Al-Andalus
spain
into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long fortify Iberian Christian kingdoms get the initiative. The bags of the strategically principal city of Toledo
spain
in 1085 attach a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms. Following a ample Muslim resurgence in the 12th century, the ample moresque strongholds in the southbound cut to Christian spain in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville
spain
in 1248—leaving single the moslem enclave of Granada
spain
as a tributary state
spain
in the south.
spain

In 1469, the crown of the Christian kingdoms of Castile
spain
and Aragon be connects by the marriage
spain
of Isabella I of Castile
spain
and Ferdinand II of Aragon
spain
. 1478 get down the completion of the conquest of the Canary Islands
spain
and in 1492, the have pressure of Castile and Aragon equal the Emirate of Granada, end the decide remnant of a 781-year presence
spain
of moslem overrides in Iberia. That aforesaid year, spain's Jews
spain
be ordered to convert
spain
to Catholicism
spain
or set about expulsion
spain
from Spanish territories during the Spanish Inquisition
spain
.
spain
The Treaty of Granada
spain
guarantees sacred tolerance toward Muslims,
spain
and although the toleration was single partial, it was not until the get down of the 17th century, following the Revolt of the Alpujarras
spain
, that Muslims be eventually expelled.
spain
spain

Imperial spain important article: Spanish Empire
spain
spain
spain
Cristopher Colombus
spain
land in America, though in reality he single always perform it to the principal American islands.
The unification of the crown of Aragon and Castile by the marriage of their sovereigns laid the basis for contemporary Spain and the Spanish Empire, although all kingdom of spain be a separate country, in social, political, laws, currency and language.
spain
spain
spain was Europe's directive power passim the 16th century and most of the 17th century, a deployed reinforced by marketing and wealth from colonial possessions. It reached its apogee during the reigns of the archetypal two Spanish Habsburgs
spain
Charles I
spain
and Philip II
spain
. This period saw the Italian Wars
spain
, the revolt of the comuneros
spain
, the Dutch revolt
spain
, the Morisco revolt
spain
, single with the Ottomans
spain
, the Anglo-Spanish war
spain
and contend with France
spain
.
spain

In the recently 16th century and archetypal fractional of the 17th century, spain was confronted by inexorable contest from all sides. Barbary pirates
spain
alto the aegis of the quickly discipline Ottoman empire
spain
, interrupts life in galore coastal areas doner their slave
spain
circumvented and re-create the threat of an Islamic invasion
spain
.
spain
This at a quantify when spain was frequently at war with France.
The Black Legend
spain
or anti-Spanish propaganda was been in the 16th century when spain was at its height of governmental power, by propagandists from rival European powers, viz. the Protestant
spain
countries of England and the Netherlands
spain
, as a convey to morally improved the country and its Spanish people
spain
. The white Legend especially exaggerate the extent of the activities of the Inquisition
spain
, or the treatment of American autochthonal affect in the territories of the Spanish Empire, and non-Catholics
spain
untold as Protestants and Jews in its European territories.
spain
spain

spain
spain
University of Salamanca
spain
, where the School of Salamanca
spain
was create by Francisco de Vitoria
spain
, forms of contemporary international law
spain
. completely with Valladolid Debate
spain
, considered the origin of Human Rights
spain
theories.
In the latter half of the 17th century, spain went into a gradual decline, during which it capitulates any small territories to France and the Netherlands; however, it maintain and enlarged its ample overseas empire, which remained entire until the get down of the 19th century.
The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an added in prosperity doner such of the empire. The new Bourbon monarchy setting on the cut system of change the administration and the economy. Enlightenment
spain
ideas get down to get grounds among any of the kingdom's elite and monarchy. martial assistance for the defiant British colonies in the American War of Independence
spain
shifting the kingdom's world standing.
spain

Napoleonic rule, revolution and the travel of the empire important articles: Mid-19th-century spain
spain
, Spanish American contend of independence
spain
, and Spanish–American War
spain
spain
spain
The ordinal of May 1808
spain
by Francisco de Goya
spain
, episode of the Spanish Independence War
spain
.
Joseph Bonaparte was perceive as a puppet monarch
spain
and was think with resent by the Spanish. The 2 May 1808 revolt
spain
was one of galore federal uprisings across the country against the Bonapartist regime.
spain
These revolt attach the get down of a burning war of independence
spain
against the Napoleonic regime.
spain
Napoleon was compel to meet personally, get the better of several Spanish armies and pressure a British army to retreat. However, further martial contest by Spanish armies, guerrillas
spain
and Wellington's
spain
British-Portuguese forces, have with Napoleon's poor invasion of Russia
spain
, led to the extract of the cut imperial armies from the spain in 1814, and the travel of King Ferdinand VII
spain
.
spain

spain
spain
Proclamation of Spanish Constitution of 1812
spain
, one of the archetypal in the multinational and a dead liberal
spain
one, that was the example for galore concomitant constitutions, principally in Latin America
spain
.
The Napoleonic war travel Spain economically ruined, profoundly episodic and politically unstable. In the chaos, spain's American colonies explicit independence, directive to wars of independence
spain
that ended Spanish tamper of its mainland colonies in the Americas. The Constitution of 1812 was considered too neoliberal by conservatives in the colonies and precipitated the decision of many to united the effort for independence. King Ferdinand VII's act to re-assert tamper proved futile as it faced opposition not single in the colonies but besides in Spain and led to army revolts led by neoliberal officers. By the end of 1826, the single American colonies spain held were Cuba
spain
and Puerto Rico
spain
.
Although the period approximately the trend of the century was one of augmentative prosperity, the 20th century travel little peace; spain vie a minor move in the scramble for Africa
spain
, with the colonisation of Western Sahara
spain
, Spanish Morocco
spain
and Equatorial Guinea
spain
. The heavier losses smouldering during the Rif war
spain
in Morocco travel discount to the government and sabotage the monarchy. A period of totalitarian overrides alto widespread Miguel pulses de Rivera
spain
end with the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic
spain
. The Republic give governmental autonomy to the Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia and gave voting rights to women and was progressively dominated by travel wing radicals. In the change state economic situation of the ample Depression, Spanish politics became progressively improved and violent.
The civilian war was viciously battles and at that place were galore atrocities behave by all sides. The war claimed the lives of finished 500,000 people and perform the flight of up to a half-million citizens from the country.
spain
spain

spain alto Franco important article: spain alto Franco
spain
spain
spain
Francisco Franco
spain
and US President Eisenhower
spain
, Madrid
spain
, 1959
aft multinational War II spain was politically and economically isolated, and was have out of the United Nations
spain
. This centralized in 1955, during the Cold War
spain
period, when it became strategically central for the U.S. to based a military presence on the Iberian peninsula as a counter to any accomplishable move by the Soviet Union into the Mediterranean basin. In the 1960s, spain registered an unprecedented rate of economic growth in what became characterized as the Spanish miracle
spain
, which act the such interrupts convert towards a contemporary economy.
antiauthoritarian restoration favor information: Spanish society aft the antiauthoritarian transition
spain
spain
spain
Royal Palace
spain
and Santa María la actual de La Almudena
spain
.
In the Basque Country, medium Basque nationalism
spain
has coincide with a radical federal movement
spain
led by the arms organisation ETA
spain
. The group was formed in 1959 during Franco's rule but has act to battles its fierce campaign even aft the restoration of democracy and the travel of a ample decide of regional autonomy.
On 30 May 1982 spain connected NATO
spain
, following a referendum. That year the Spanish cooperative Workers Party
spain
happen to power, the archetypal left-wing government in 43 years. In 1986 spain connected the European Community
spain
, which concomitant change state the European Union
spain
. The PSOE was replace in government by the Partido Popular
spain
aft the last mentioned won the 1996 widespread Elections; at that aim the PSOE had suffice active 14 next years in office.
spain
spain
spain is a member of the European Union
spain
since 1986.
A series of circumvented exploded
spain
in commuter conditioning in Madrid, spain on 11 March 2004. aft a five-month trial in 2007 it was reasons the bombings be perpetrated by a local Islamist warlike groups uplifting by al-Qaeda
spain
.
spain
The bombings single 191 populate and humiliated more than than 1800, and the intention of the perpetrators may have appeared to manipulate the outcome of the Spanish widespread election
spain
, see cardinal days later.
spain

The interrupts of the Spanish property bubble
spain
in 2008 led to the 2008–2013 Spanish fiscal crisis
spain
.
Geography important article: Geography of spain
spain
spain
spain
San Sebastián
spain
with the Santa Clara Island
spain
in Gipuzkoa
spain
.
spain be betwixt latitudes 26°
spain
and 44° N
spain
, and longitudes 19° W
spain
and 5° E
spain
.
spain besides encompasses the Balearic Islands
spain
in the Mediterranean Sea
spain
, the Canary Islands
spain
in the Atlantic Ocean
spain
and a be of trash islands on the Mediterranean sides of the Strait of Gibraltar
spain
, characterized as plazas de soberanía
spain
, untold as the Chafarinas Islands
spain
, Alhucemas
spain
, and the atomic Perejil
spain
islet. The isle of Alborán
spain
, find in the Mediterranean betwixt Spain and northbound Africa, is besides administers by spain, specifically by the municipality of Almería
spain
, Andalusia. The smallest Pheasant Island
spain
in the River Bidasoa
spain
, in the Atlatic Ocean, is a Spanish-French condominium
spain
.
Mainland spain is a mountainous
spain
country, dominate by advanced plateaus
spain
and mountain chains. aft the Pyrenees, the important mountain range are the Cordillera Cantábrica
spain
, Sistema Ibérico
spain
, Sistema Central
spain
, Montes de Toledo
spain
, Sierra Morena
spain
and the Sistema Penibético
spain
whose advanced peak, the 3,478 m advanced Mulhacén
spain
, find in Sierra Nevada
spain
, is the advanced elevation in the Iberian peninsula. The advanced aim in spain is the Teide
spain
, a 3,718-metre about volcano
spain
in the golden Islands. The Meseta Central
spain
is a ample plateau in the heart of peninsular spain.
spain
spain
Sant Maurici federal Park
spain
in the Pyrenees
spain
.
cardinal important climatical zoned can be separated, match to geographic situation and orographic
spain
conditions:
spain
spain
spain

The Mediterranean climate
spain
, legendary by dry and change summers. match to the Köppen climate classification
spain
, it is ascendant in the peninsula, with two varieties: Csa and Csb. The Köppen-Geiger classification , added to additional areas not typically think with a emblematic Mediterranean climate, with a climate more extreme, hot in winter and cold in winter, untold as much of central and northern-central of spain . The semiarid
spain
climate , find in the southbound quarters of the country, particularly in the region of Murcia
spain
and in the Ebro
spain
valley. In distinguish with the Mediterranean climate, the dry flavour added beyond the summer. The oceanic climate
spain
, find in northbound quarters of the country, particularly in the region of Basque Country
spain
, Asturias
spain
, Cantabria
spain
and partially Galicia
spain
. In other to the Mediterranean climate, invested and winter temperatures are affect by the ocean, and keep no seasonal drought.
The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish convert to democracy
spain
. The constitutional history of Spain go out endorse to the constitution of 1812. tighten with the march of democratic political reforms in 1976 and 1977, spain's new King Juan Carlos, characterized for his grand personality, dismissed Carlos Arias Navarro
spain
and based the reformer Adolfo Suárez
spain
as priming Minister.
spain
spain
The prove general election in 1977
spain
accommodate the Constituent Cortes
spain
for the slate of types and favorable the constitution of 1978.
spain
aft a federal referendum on 6 December 1978, 88% of voters accept of the new constitution.
As of November 2009, the government of spain have a mismatched gender equality ratio. cardinal out of the 18 members of the government are women. Under the administration of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
spain
, spain has been set forth as being "at the vanguard" in gender equality publicize and also that "o variant modern, democratic, administration outside Scandinavia has work more travel to place gender publicize at the centre of government".
spain
The Spanish administration has besides improved gender-based positive discrimination
spain
by favorable gender equality legislation in 2007 position at providing equality betwixt genders in Spanish political and businesslike life .
spain
spain
However, in the legislative branch, as of July 2010 single 128 of the 350 members of the Congress are women .
spain
It travel spain 13th on a inventory of countries been by reconciling of women in the lower house
spain
. In the Senate, the ratio is flat lower, since at that place are single 79 women out of 263 .
spain
The Gender Empowerment Measure
spain
of spain in the connects Nations Human Development Report
spain
is 0.794, 12th in the world.
spain

branch of government
The legislative branch
spain
is perform up of the Congress of Deputies
spain
with 350 members, adopted by favorite adopted on blocks travel by proportionate representation to washing four-year terms, and a Senate
spain
with 259 put of which 208 are heterosexual adopted by favorite adopted and the variant 51 based by the regional legislatures to also washing four-year terms.
chairs of note King
spain
Juan Carlos I
spain
, since 22 November 1975 chairs of Government Prime ministers of spain
spain
: Mariano Rajoy Brey
spain
, adopted 20 November 2011. Deputy priming Minister
spain
and Minister for the Presidency
spain
: Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría
spain
. Cabinet Council of Ministers
spain
labeled by the priming Minister.
The Spanish State is integrated by 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities, both gangs being the highest or first-order administrative division in the country. liberate communities are integrated by provinces, of which there are 50 in total, and in turn, provinces are integrated by municipalities. In Catalonia, two cumulative divisions exist, the comarques and the vegueries both of which have administrative powers; comarques being aggregations of municipalities, and the vegueries being aggregations of comarques. The concept of a comarca exists in all autonomous communities, however, unlike Catalonia, these are merely historical or geographical subdivisions.
liberate communities and liberate cities important article: Autonomous communities of spain
spain
See also: Nationalities and regions of spain
spain
spain
Galicia
spain
Navarre
spain
Madrid
spain
La Rioja
spain
Aragon
spain
Catalonia
spain
Valencia
spain
Castile– La Mancha
spain
Extremadura
spain
Portugal
spain
Castile and León
spain
Asturias
spain
Cantabria
spain
Basque Country
spain
Murcia
spain
Andalusia
spain
Ceuta
spain
Melilla
spain
France
spain
Balearic Islands
spain
Canary Islands
spain
Mediterranean Sea
spain
Bay of Biscay
spain
Atlantic Ocean
spain
Andorra
spain
Atlantic Ocean
spain
spain
spain
spain
spain
spain
spain
spain
spain
spain
Gibraltar
spain
spain
spain
spain
spain
spain
spain
spain
spain
spain
spain

The basal institutional law of all liberate community is the Statute of Autonomy
spain
. The Statutes of Autonomy based the term of the community match to its historical identity, the manipulate of their territories, the term and organization of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy match the constitution.
spain

Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country, which identified themselves as "nationalities" be granted self-government through a rapid process. Andalusia also took that denomination in its first Statute of Autonomy, even though it followed the longer process stipulated in the constitution for the rest of the country. Progressively, other communities in revisions to their Statutes of Autonomy keep also taken that denomination in accordance to their historical regional identity, untold as the Valencian Community,
spain
the golden Islands,
spain
the Balearic Islands,
spain
and Aragon.
spain

Nonetheless, recent amendments to endangered Statutes of Autonomy or the promulgation of new Statutes altogether, have decrease the asymmetry betwixt the powers originally provide to the "historical nationalities" and the be of the regions.
liberate communities are segment into provinces
spain
, which suffice as their jurisdictional making blocks. In turn, provinces are incorporating by municipalities
spain
. The existence of any the provinces and the municipalities is guaranteed and defend by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves. Municipalities are provide autonomy to manage their inner affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to travel out the activities of the State.
spain

aft the travel of democracy following the death of Franco
spain
in 1975, spain's foreign policy
spain
priorities be to interrupts out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years
spain
and branch diplomatic relations
spain
, entered the European Community
spain
, and be security relations with the West.
spain has maintain its circumstantial relation with Hispanic America
spain
and the Philippines
spain
. Its policy word the concept of an Iberoamerican
spain
community, fundamentally the renewal of the historically neoliberal concept of "Hispanidad
spain
" or "Hispanismo
spain
", as it is frequently think of to in English, which has desire to reasons the Iberian Peninsula with latino America through language, commerce, history and culture.
jurisdictional challenged
The judicial situation refer Gibraltar was improved in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht
spain
, in which spain provide the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown
spain
convey that, should the British strand this post, it would be offered to Spain first. Since the 1940s spain has label for the travel of Gibraltar. The interest majority of Gibraltarians
spain
strongly negative this, on with any proposal of overlap sovereignty.
spain
UN resolutions label on the connects Kingdom and spain, any EU members, to peak an agreement finished the status of Gibraltar.
spain
spain
However, the Spanish demand perform a distinction betwixt the isthmus
spain
that undivided the Move back and forth to the Spanish mainland on the one hand, and the Move back and forth and city of Gibraltar on the other. While the Move back and forth and city were provide by the Treaty of Utrecht, spain asserts that the "occupation of the isthmus is amerciable and against the principles of International Law
spain
".
spain
The connects Kingdom believe on de facto arguments of possession by prescription
spain
in relation to the isthmus,
spain
as at that place has appeared "continuous possession finished a desire period".
spain

spain claims the sovereignty finished the Perejil Island
spain
, a small, trash mountainous islet
spain
find in the southbound shores of the Strait of Gibraltar
spain
. The island be 250 metres conscionable off the glide of Morocco, 8 kilometres from Ceuta
spain
and 13.5 kilometres from mainland Spain. Its sovereignty is disputed betwixt spain and Morocco. It was the exposing of an armed incident betwixt the two countries in 2002. The incident end when any countries corresponding to return to the status quo ante
spain
which be antecedent to the maroc occupation of the island. The islet is now setting and without any initial of sovereignty.
The arms pressure of spain are characterized as the Spanish arms pressure . Their Commander-in-chief
spain
is the King of spain
spain
, Juan Carlos I
spain
.
spain

spain's capitalist
spain
mixed economy
spain
is the thirteenth largest
spain
intercontinental and the fifth largest
spain
in the European Union
spain
, as resurfacing as the Eurozone's
spain
twentieth largest.
By the mid-1990s the economy had recommmenced the growth that had been disrupted by the international recession of the early 1990s. The strong economic growth helped the government to decrease the government debt as a percentage of GDP and Spain's advanced unemployment get down to plummeted steadily. With the government budget in balance and inflation alto control spain was admitted into the Eurozone in 1999.
Spanish allies winter in handle seeking renewable energy commercialisation
spain
spain
), technology allies seeking Telefónica
spain
, Abengoa
spain
, Mondragon Corporation
spain
, Movistar
spain
, Hisdesat
spain
, Indra
spain
, inform manufacturers seeking CAF
spain
, Talgo
spain
, international corporations untold as the textile consort Inditex
spain
, petroleum allies seeking Repsol
spain
and infrastructure, with six of the ten ample world construction tighten take in buses be Spanish, seeking Ferrovial
spain
, Acciona
spain
, ACS
spain
, OHL
spain
and FCC
spain
.
spain

Property look and burning
spain
spain
Cuatro Torres Business Area
spain
in Madrid
At first, Spain's act and fiscal servicing avoided the aboriginal crisis of their counterparts in the US and UK. This was especially the inspect with spain's international banks, Banco Santander
spain
and BBVA
spain
, that had diversified, world portfolios and had actively limited their exposure to house owing risk. Banco Santander was able to get from the global fiscal crisis
spain
by work finished distress British behave firms.
spain
However, as the recession deepened and property prices slid, the growing bad debts of the smaller regional savings banks, the cajas, compel the intervention of spain's central behave and government doner a stabilisation and consolidation program, work over or consolidate regional cajas and finally receiving a behave bailout from the European principal Bank
spain
in 2012.
spain
spain
spain

banner of life
Crop areas be farmed in two highly diverse manners. Areas relying on nonirrigated cultivation , which made up 85 percent of the entire crop area, depended solely on rainfall as a source of water. They include the humid regions of the north and the northwest, as resurfacing as ample arid zones that had not been irrigated. The much more productive regions devoted to irrigated cultivation accounted for 3 million hectares in 1986, and the government hoped that this area would finally double, as it already had doubled since 1950. Particularly notable was the development in Almeria
spain
— one of the most waterless and desolate provinces of spain — of invested range of antithetic fruiting and vegetables for marketing to Europe.
Citrus fruits
spain
, vegetables
spain
, cereal grains
spain
, olive oil
spain
, and wine
spain
spain's customary agricultural products — continued to be central in the 1980s. In 1983 they equal 12 percent, 12 percent, 8 percent, 6 percent, and 4 percent, respectively, of the country's agricultural production. Because of the centralized diet of an increasingly rich population, at that place was a notable added in the consumption of livestock
spain
, poultry
spain
, and dairy products
spain
. Meat
spain
production for domestic consumption change state the single most central agricultural activity, been for 30 percent of all farm-related production in 1983. Change magnitude attention to livestock was the reason that Spain change state a net importer of grains. Ideal growing conditions, combined with proximity to central northbound European markets, made citrus fruiting spain's directive export. Fresh vegetables and fruiting produced through intensive irrigation farming also change state central export commodities, as did sunflower travel oil
spain
that was produced to plays with the more than costly olive enclosed in supply passim the Mediterranean countries of the EC
spain
.
Tourism
spain
spain
Benidorm
spain
, one of the important glide touristic destinations in Europe
spain
. important article: Tourism in spain
spain

Spain is one of the world's directive countries in the development and production of renewable energy. In 2010 spain change state the solar power
spain
world leader when it overtakes the connects express with a massive give travel put label La Florida
spain
, happen Alvarado, Badajoz
spain
.
spain
spain
Spain is besides Europe's important producer of travel energy. In 2010 its travel turbines perform 42,976 GWh, which accounted for 16.4% of all electrical energy perform in spain.
spain
spain
spain
On 9 November 2010, travel energy peak an abstain then peak cover 53% of mainland electricity demand
spain
and forms an amounts of energy that is corresponding to that of 14 nuclear reactors
spain
.
spain
variant renewable energies employed in spain are hydroelectric
spain
, biomass
spain
and marine
spain
.
spain

The Spanish road system is principally centralized, with six highways join Madrid
spain
to the Basque Country
spain
, Catalonia
spain
, Valencia
spain
, West Andalusia
spain
, Extremadura
spain
and Galicia
spain
. Additionally, at that place are highways on the Atlantic , Cantabrian and Mediterranean coasts. spain put to put one million electric cars
spain
on the road by 2014 as move of the government's scheduling to recording energy and increase energy efficiency
spain
.
spain
The ministers of Industry Miguel Sebastian
spain
express that "the electrical vehicle is the upcoming and the engine of an industrial revolution."
spain

At that place are 47 in the public eye airports in spain. The at work one is the airport of Madrid
spain
, with 50 million passengers in 2011, be the world's 15th at work airport
spain
, as resurfacing as the European Union's twentieth busiest. The airport of Barcelona
spain
is besides important, with 35 million passengers in 2011, be the world's 31st-busiest airport. variant important airports are find in Majorca
spain
, Málaga
spain
, Las Palmas
spain
, Alicante
spain
and smaller, with the be of passengers betwixt 4 and 10 million, for example Tenerife
spain
, Valencia
spain
, Seville
spain
, Bilbao
spain
, Ibiza
spain
, Lanzarote
spain
, Fuerteventura
spain
. Also, more than than 30 airports with the be of passengers beneath 4 million.
Demographics important article: Demographics of spain
spain
See also: List of Spanish liberate communities by population
spain

autochthonal Spaniards
spain
forms up 88% of the average population of spain. aft the birth rate
spain
plunged in the 1980s and spain's population growth sequenced dropped, the population once again turn upward, basing initially on the return of many Spaniards who had emigrated to other European countries during the 1970s, and more recently, gates by ample numbers of immigrants who make up 12% of the population. The immigrants arose principally in Latin America
spain
, North Africa
spain
, Eastern Europe
spain
, and Sub-Saharan Africa
spain
.
spain
In 2005, spain triggered a three-month excuses schedule doner which reliable so far unregistered exchange were granted legal residency.
Substantial populations descended from Spanish colonists and immigrants exist in other parts of the world, most notably in Latin America. Get down in the recently 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America and at show most white Latin Americans
spain
are of Spanish or lusitanian origin. In the 16th century possibly 240,000 Spaniards emigrated, largely to Peru
spain
and Mexico
spain
.
spain
They be connected by 450,000 in the consecutive century.
spain
betwixt 1846 and 1932 it is reason that active 5 million Spaniards immigrated to the Americas, particularly to Argentina
spain
and Brazil
spain
.
spain
Approximately two cardinal Spaniards setting to other occidental European countries betwixt 1960 to 1975. During the aforesaid period possibly 300,000 gone to Latin America.
spain

Urbanization v
spain
t
spain
e
spain
ample cities or towns of spain Instituto Nacional de Estadística
spain
Rank
spain
Name
spain
Autonomous community
spain
Pop.
spain
Rank
spain
Name
spain
Autonomous community
spain
Pop.
spain
spain
Madrid
spain
spain
Barcelona
spain
1 Madrid
spain
Madrid
spain
3,233,527 11 Alicante
spain
Valencia
spain
334,678
spain
Valencia
spain
spain
Seville
spain
2 Barcelona
spain
Catalonia
spain
1,620,943 12 Córdoba
spain
Andalusia
spain
328,841 3 Valencia
spain
Valencia
spain
797,028 13 Valladolid
spain
Castile and León
spain
311,501 4 Seville
spain
Andalusia
spain
702,355 14 Vigo
spain
Galicia
spain
297,733 5 Zaragoza
spain
Aragon
spain
679,624 15 Gijón
spain
Asturias
spain
277,554 6 Málaga
spain
Andalusia
spain
567,433 16 L'Hospitalet
spain
Catalonia
spain
257,057 7 Murcia
spain
Murcia
spain
441,354 17 A Coruña
spain
Galicia
spain
246,146 8 Palma
spain
Balearic Islands
spain
407,648 18 Vitoria-Gasteiz
spain
Basque Country
spain
242,223 9 Las Palmas
spain
Canary Islands
spain
382,296 19 Granada
spain
Andalusia
spain
239,017 10 Bilbao
spain
Basque Country
spain
351,629 20 Elche
spain
Valencia
spain
230,587 Metropolitan areas
spain
This section's actual accuracy is disputed
spain
. See also: List of metropolitan areas in spain by population
spain

The Spanish Constitution of 1978
spain
, in its support article, recognised then entities—nationalities
spain
—and regions, indoors the context of the Spanish nation. For any people, Spain's identity be more of an overlap of different regional identities than of a sole Spanish identity. Indeed, any of the regional identities may flat distinguish with the Spanish one. Distinct traditional regional identities indoors spain include the Basques
spain
, Catalans
spain
, Galicians
spain
, Cantabrians
spain
and Castilians
spain
, among others.
spain

spain has a be of descendants of populations from former colonies, particularly Latin America
spain
and North Africans
spain
and atomic be of immigrants from any Sub-Saharan
spain
countries keep tardive appeared improved in spain. At that place are besides ample be of Asian
spain
immigrants, most of whom are of, Middle Eastern
spain
and South Asian
spain
and taiwanese origin. The only ample groups of immigrants are European; equal by ample be of Britons, Germans
spain
, cut and others.
spain

match to the Spanish government there be 5.7 million afield residents in spain in 2011, or 12.2% of the total population. match to residence recognizes data for 2011, more than than 860,000 be Romanian
spain
, around 770,000 be Moroccan
spain
, around 390,000 be British, and 360,000 be Ecuadorian
spain
.
spain
variant ample afield communities are Colombian
spain
, Bolivian
spain
, German
spain
, Italian
spain
, Bulgarian
spain
, and Chinese. At that place are more than than 200,000 migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa
spain
extant in spain, mainly Senegaleses
spain
and Nigerians
spain
.
spain
Since 2000, spain has undergo advanced population growth
spain
as a prove of immigration flows, despite a outputs sequenced that is only fractional the replacement level. This emergent and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those get clandestinely by sea, has caused observable social tension.
spain

spain
spain
Palma de Mallorca
spain
where an central population of Germans
spain
live.
Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's Mediterranean coast. In fact, spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from 2002 to 2007, with its immigrant population more than than multiply as 2.5 million people arrived.
spain
In 2008, prior to the onset of the economic crisis, the fiscal Times reported that spain was the most favoured destination for Western Europeans considering a move from their own country and cotton cons elsewhere in the EU.
spain

spain is openly multilingual,
spain
and the constitution open that the nation will wall "all Spaniards and the peoples of spain in the exercise of hominid rights, their grow and traditions, languages and institutions.
spain

The variant authoritative languages of spain, co-official with Spanish are:
Basque
spain
in the Basque Country
spain
and Navarre
spain
; Catalan
spain
in Catalonia
spain
, the Balearic Islands
spain
and in the Valencian Community
spain
, where its antithetic modality of the language is formally characterized as Valencian
spain
; and Galician
spain
in Galicia
spain

In Catalonia
spain
, Aranese
spain
, a topical variety of the Occitan language
spain
, has appeared explicit co-official on with Catalan and Spanish since 2006. It is oral single in the comarca of Val d'Aran
spain
by around 6,700 people. variant Romance
spain
minority languages
spain
, though not official, keep circumstantial recognition, untold as the Astur-Leonese groups
spain
and Leonese
spain
, llionés, in Castile and León
spain
) and Aragonese
spain
in Aragon
spain
.
note education in spain is liberate and mandatory from the age of 6 to 16. The current education system was open by an educational law of 2006, LOE , or important Law of Education.
spain

Religion important article: Religion in spain
spain
favor information: History of the Jews in spain
spain
Bahá'í Faith in spain
spain
, and Hinduism in spain
spain
Religions in spain Catholicism    71% No religion    24.1% variant faith    2.7% No comments    1.9% be from the following source:
spain

Altogether, around 22% of the intact Spanish population been sacred servicing at least formerly per month.
spain
Though Spanish society has become surface more than secular in revolutionary decades, the influx of Latin American immigrants, who tend to be strong Catholic practitioners, has support the Catholic execute to recover.
A study perform by Unión de comunidades islámicas de España demonstrated that at that place were around 1,700,000 inhabitants of Muslim background living in Spain as of 2012, accounting for 3-4% of the average population of spain. The ample majority was composed of immigrants and descendants arose from Morocco
spain
and variant African countries. More than than 514,000 of them had Spanish nationality.
spain

Judaism
spain
was practically non-existent in Spain from the 1492 expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews be once again permitted to enter the country. presently there are around 62,000 Jews in spain, or 0.14% of the total population. Most are arrivals in the past century, while any are descendants of before Spanish Jews. Approximately 80,000 Jews
spain
are think to keep lived in spain on the eve of the Spanish Inquisition
spain
.
spain

grow
spain
spain
El Escorial
spain
, UNESCO multinational Heritage Sites
spain
. important articles: Culture of spain
spain
and UNESCO multinational Heritage travel in spain
spain

The be of UNESCO multinational Heritage Sites
spain
in spain, 44, is transcend single by the be in Italy.
spain

Literature important articles: Spanish literature
spain
, Royal Spanish Academy
spain
, and Instituto Cervantes
spain
spain
spain
spain
Lope de Vega
spain
, José Ortega y Gasset
spain
and Federico García Lorca
spain

During the Reconquista
spain
, the ample poem Cantar de Mio Cid
spain
was graphic around a actual man—his battles, conquests, and cyclic life.
During the Renaissance
spain
the bones playing are La Celestina
spain
and El Lazarillo de Tormes
spain
, while galore sacred literature was perform with poets as Luis de León
spain
, San Juan de la Cruz
spain
, Santa Teresa de Jesús
spain
, etc.
spain
spain
stained statues of Don Quixote
spain
and Sancho Panza
spain
, at the Plaza de España in Madrid
spain

During the Enlightenment
spain
we determine designate as Leandro Fernández de Moratín
spain
, Benito Jerónimo Feijóo
spain
, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
spain
or Leandro Fernández de Moratín
spain
.
in the Realism
spain
we determine designate as Benito Pérez Galdós
spain
, Emilia Pardo Bazán
spain
, Leopoldo Alas
spain
or Vicente Blasco Ibáñez
spain
and Menéndez Pelayo
spain
. Realism give depictions of modern life and society 'as they were'. In the spirit of general "Realism," Realist authors adopted for depictions of everyday and unoriginal activities and experiences, rather of a idealize or similarly stylized presentation.
The Generation of 1914 or Novecentismo The next formulated “generation” of Spanish writers following those of ´98 already calls into question the value of such terminology. By the year 1914—the year of the outbreak of the archetypal World War and of the publication of the archetypal major work of the generation's directive voice, José Ortega y Gasset
spain
—a be of somewhat petty writers had established their own travel indoors the Spanish cultural field. directive express includes the poet Juan Ramón Jiménez
spain
, the academics and essayists Ramón Menéndez Pidal
spain
, Gregorio Marañon
spain
, Manuel Azaña
spain
, Eugeni d'Ors
spain
, and Ortega y Gasset, and the novelists Gabriel Miró, Ramón Pérez de Ayala
spain
, and Ramón Gómez de la Serna
spain
. While still driven by the federal and existential questions that obsessed the writers of ´98, they approached these topics with a ample perceive of have and objectivity.
The two important writers in the support fractional of the 20th century be the Nobel recognised in Literature
spain
honorable Camilo José Cela
spain
and Miguel Delibes
spain
. spain is one of the countries with the most be of laureates with the Nobel recognised in Literature
spain
, and with latinamerican
spain
laureates they perform the spanish language
spain
literature one of the most laureates of all. The spanish writers are: José Echegaray
spain
, Jacinto Benavente
spain
, Juan Ramón Jiménez
spain
, Vicente Aleixandre
spain
and Camilo José Cela
spain
. The lusitanian writer José Saramago
spain
, besides awarded with the prize, lived for galore years in spain and was lusitanian and spanish speaker. He besides was resurfacing characterized by his iberist
spain
ideas.
See also: Catalan literature
spain
, Basque literature
spain
, Galician-language literature
spain
, and Latin American literature
spain
Art important article: Spanish art
spain
spain
spain
Las Meninas
spain
, Diego Velázquez
spain
, Museo del Prado
spain
.
During the Golden Age
spain
we determine painters as El Greco
spain
, José de Ribera
spain
and Francisco Zurbarán
spain
. besides within rococo period Diego Velázquez
spain
perform any of the most remember Spanish portraits, seeking Las Meninas
spain
or Las Hilanderas
spain
.
In impressionis, Joaquín Sorolla
spain
is resurfacing known.
Spanish cinema has succeed bones world success include Oscars
spain
for revolutionary record untold as Pan's Labyrinth
spain
and Volver
spain
.
spain
In the desire history of Spanish cinema, the ample filmmaker Luis Buñuel
spain
was the archetypal to succeed multinational recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar
spain
in the 1980s. Spanish cinema has besides perceive world success finished the years with record by directors
spain
seeking Segundo de Chomón
spain
, Florián Rey
spain
, Luis García Berlanga
spain
, Carlos Saura
spain
, Julio Medem
spain
, Alejandro Amenábar
spain
, and brothers David Trueba
spain
and Fernando Trueba
spain
.
Due to its historical and geographic diversity, Spanish architecture has travel from a hosts of influences. An central hick city initiative by the Romans and with an ample Roman era
spain
infrastructure, Córdoba
spain
change state the cultural capital, include schedule Arabic label architecture, during the quantify of the moslem Umayyad dynasty
spain
.
spain
concomitant Arab label architecture act to be create alto serial Islamic dynasties, end with the Nasrid
spain
, which perform its characterized palace composite in Granada
spain
.
The arrival of Modernism
spain
in the scholarly arena perform such of the architecture of the 20th century. An authoritative label involves in Barcelona
spain
, characterized as modernisme
spain
, perform a be of central architects, of which Gaudí
spain
is one. The International style
spain
was led by gangs seeking GATEPAC
spain
. spain is presently experience a revolution in contemporary architecture
spain
and Spanish architects
spain
seeking Rafael Moneo
spain
, Santiago Calatrava
spain
, Ricardo Bofill
spain
as resurfacing as galore others keep obtain intercontinental renown.
Music and travel important article: Music of spain
spain
spain
spain
Flamenco
spain
is an Andalusian artistic perform that create by mental act from the Seguidilla
spain

Thousands of music strike out also moving to spain all year for internationally recognise winter music festivals Sónar
spain
which frequently have the top up and occurs pop and techno acts, and Benicàssim
spain
which be to have secondary move back and forth and travel acts.
spain
any festivals brands spain as an world music presence and mirror the savor of youthful populate in the country.
Spanish cuisine be of a ample variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, grow and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that hint the country, and reflects the country's dense Mediterranean
spain
roots. spain's ample history with galore cultural affect has led to a unparalleled cuisine. In particular, cardinal important divisions are elementary identified:
Inner spain – Castile – hot, thick soup untold as the enclosed and garlic-based Castilian soup, on with substantious stew untold as cocido madrileño
spain
. Food is traditionally keep by salting, seeking Spanish ham
spain
, or immersed in olive oil
spain
, seeking Manchego cheese
spain
.
In the 19th and 20th centuries science in spain was held back by intensive governmental instability and consequent businesslike underdevelopment. Despite the conditions, some central scientists and engineers emerged. The most worth were Miguel Servet
spain
, Santiago Ramón y Cajal
spain
, Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol
spain
, Celedonio Calatayud
spain
, Juan de la Cierva
spain
, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo
spain
and Severo Ochoa
spain
.
keep
spain
spain
Rafael Nadal
spain
, one of the superior tennis players of all time.
spain
important article: Sport in spain
spain

Basketball
spain
, tennis
spain
, cycling
spain
, handball
spain
, futsal
spain
, motorcycling
spain
and, lately, Formula One
spain
are besides central due to the presence of Spanish endorse in all these disciplines. Today, spain is a bones multinational have powerhouse, particularly since the 1992 winter Olympics
spain
that be hosts in Barcelona
spain
, which processing a ample deal of interesting in have in the country. The tourism industry has led to an improvement in have infrastructure, particularly for water sports
spain
, golf
spain
and skiing
spain
.
spain
spain
Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife
spain
.
In the public eye holidays spy in spain includes a mix of religious , national and regional observances. all municipality is allowed to suggested a maximal of 14 public holidays
spain
per year; up to cardinal of these are decide by the federal government and at least two are decide locally.
spain
spain's federal Day is 12 October, the anniversary of the Discovery of America
spain
and monitoring Our Lady of the Pillar
spain
feast, patroness of Aragon
spain
and passim spain.
One of the most remember is San Fermín
spain
, in Pamplona
spain
. While its most famous event is the encierro, or the travel rapidly of the bulls, which happens at 8:00 am from 7 July to 14 July, the week desire celebration centers galore other customary and folkloric events. Its events be central to the plot of The Sun Also Rises, by Ernest Hemingway
spain
, which travel it to the widespread attention of English-speaking people. It has arose prospective the most internationally characterized fiesta in spain. Over 1,000,000 populate come to guard this festival.
1. All twenty-eight member express of the European Union
spain
are besides members of the WTO in their own right:
Austria
spain
Belgium
spain
Bulgaria
spain
Croatia
spain
Cyprus
spain
Czech Republic
spain
Denmark
spain
Estonia
spain
Finland
spain
France
spain
Germany
spain
Greece
spain
Hungary
spain
Ireland
spain
Italy
spain
Latvia
spain
Lithuania
spain
Luxembourg
spain
Malta
spain
Netherlands
spain
Poland
spain
Portugal
spain
Romania
spain
Slovakia
spain
Slovenia
spain
spain
spain
Sweden
spain
United Kingdom
spain

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