byzantine
Solidus
byzantine
with the visualize of Justinian the Great
byzantine

byzantine
The Empire at its superior extent in 555 AD alto Justinian the Great
byzantine
primary Constantinople
byzantine
Languages Latin
byzantine
Greek
byzantine
Religion Roman paganism
byzantine
until 380. Christianity
byzantine
; Orthodox Christianity
byzantine
aft 1054. Government Absolutist
byzantine
autocracy
byzantine
Emperor
byzantine
 -  330–337 Constantine I
byzantine
 -  1449–1453 Constantine XI
byzantine
Historical era Late Antiquity
byzantine
Late put Ages
byzantine
 -  Partition of the romanic Empire
byzantine
285  -  Founding of Constantinople
byzantine
330  -  Death of Theodosius I
byzantine
395  -  Nominal end of occidental Empire 476  -  Fourth Crusade
byzantine
1204  -  Reconquest of Constantinople 1261  -  Fall of Constantinople
byzantine
29 May 1453  -  travel of Trebizond
byzantine
15 aristocratic 1461 Population
byzantine
 -  565 AD est. 26,000,000a   -  780 AD est. 7,000,000   -  1025 AD est. 12,000,000   -  1143 AD est. 10,000,000   -  1282 AD est. 5,000,000  Currency Solidus
byzantine
, Hyperpyron
byzantine
a. See Population of the byzantine Empire
byzantine
for more instance rating work provided by McEvedy and Jones, "Atlas of multinational Population History", 1978, as resurfacing as Angeliki E. Laiou, "The businesslike History of Byzantium", 2002.
any events from the 4th to 6th centuries brands the transitional period during which the romanic Empire's east and west
byzantine
divided
byzantine
. In 285, the emperor
byzantine
Diocletian
byzantine
segment the romanic Empire's administration into eastbound and occidental halves.
byzantine
betwixt 324 and 330, Constantine I
byzantine
delegate the important primary from Rome
byzantine
to Byzantium
byzantine
, concomitant characterized as Constantinople and Nova Roma .
byzantine
alto Theodosius I
byzantine
, Christianity
byzantine
change state the Empire's authoritative state religion
byzantine
and others untold as Roman polytheism
byzantine
be proscribed
byzantine
. And finally, alto the decide of Heraclius
byzantine
, the Empire's martial and administration be organize and adopting grecian for authoritative use rather of Latin.
byzantine
In summation, whilst it maintain romanic note traditions, Byzantium is identified from ancient Rome
byzantine
becoming in so far as it was line towards grecian instead than Latin culture, and stratified by Orthodox Christianity
byzantine
instead than Roman polytheism
byzantine
.
byzantine

The close centuries of the Empire exhibit a widespread curve of decline. It risk to recover during the 12th century
byzantine
, but was tell a earthly peering during the Fourth Crusade
byzantine
, when Constantinople was lead and the Empire dissolved and divided
byzantine
into plays byzantine grecian and Latin realms
byzantine
. Despite the crowning recovery of Constantinople and re-establishment of the Empire in 1261
byzantine
, Byzantium remained single one of several atomic plays express in the area for the close two centuries of its existence. Its be territories be progressively evaluate by the Ottomans
byzantine
finished the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople
byzantine
in 1453 eventually end the Empire.
Nomenclature See also: Names of the Greeks
byzantine

The byzantine Empire was characterized to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans" , "Romania" ,
byzantine
the "Roman Republic" , Graikia , and besides as Rhōmais .
byzantine

The authority of the byzantine emperor as the recognizes romanic emperor was dispute by the coronation of Charlemagne
byzantine
as Imperator Augustus
byzantine
by Pope Leo III
byzantine
in the year 800. Needing Charlemagne's help in his struggle against his enemies in Rome, Leo used the missing of a male occupant of the throne of the Roman Empire at the quantify to demand that it was improved and that he could therefore crown a new Emperor himself.
byzantine
Whenever the Popes or the rulers of the West made use of the term Roman to involves to the Eastern Roman Emperors, they normally desire the term Imperator Romaniae instead of Imperator Romanorum , a title that they applied only to Charlemagne and his successors.
byzantine

The Roman army
byzantine
succeed in tamper galore territories cover the intact Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe
byzantine
and north Africa. These territories be chambers to galore other cultural groups, ranging from aboriginal to highly sophisticated. Generally speaking, the eastern Mediterranean provinces be more than urbanised than the western, having antecedently been connects alto the Macedonian Empire
byzantine
and Hellenised
byzantine
by the manipulate of grecian culture.
byzantine

In order to maintain control and improve administration, various schemes to divide the work of the Roman Emperor by overlap it betwixt individuals were act betwixt 285 and 324, from 337 to 350, from 364 to 392, and again betwixt 395 and 480. Although the administrative subdivisions varied, they generally involved a division of take betwixt eastbound and West. all division was a form of power-sharing , for the ultimate imperium was not divisible and therefore the empire remained legally one state—although the co-emperors often saw all other as compete or enemies.
In 330, Constantine
byzantine
moving the seat of the Empire
byzantine
to Constantinople
byzantine
, which he founded as a support Rome on the site of Byzantium, a city well-positioned astride the trade transport between East and West. Constantine announcing central changes into the Empire's military, monetary, civil and sacred institutions. As regards his businesslike policies in particular, he has appeared accused by certain scholars of "reckless fiscality", but the metallic solidus
byzantine
he announcing change state a harbours currency that dress the economy and improved development.
byzantine

In 395, Theodosius I
byzantine
give the imperial office collectively to his sons: Arcadius
byzantine
in the eastbound and Honorius
byzantine
in the West, once once again dividing Imperial administration. In the 5th century the eastbound move of the empire was mostly spared the difficulties set about by the West—due in move to a more than established urban culture and ample financial resources, which allowed it to calm invaders with tribute
byzantine
and pay afield mercenaries. This success allowed Theodosius II
byzantine
to think on the codification of the romanic law
byzantine
and the favor fortification of the protect of Constantinople
byzantine
, which travel the city fast to most battles until 1204.
byzantine

aft the travel of Attila, the Eastern Empire enjoyed a period of peace, while the occidental Empire eroding into continuing migration and expansion by Germanic nations
byzantine
byzantine
). In 480 Emperor Zeno
byzantine
cashier the division of the Empire, making himself soles Emperor. Odoacer, now ruler of Italy, was nominally Zeno's assistant but acted with complete autonomy, eventually providing support to a rebellion against the Emperor.
byzantine

In 491, Anastasius I
byzantine
, an oldest civilian command of Roman origin, became Emperor, but it was not until 497 that the pressure of the new emperor efficaciously work the decide of Isaurian resistance
byzantine
.
byzantine
Anastasius display himself as an vigorous reformer and an able administrator. He repaired Constantine I's coinage system by definitively setting the fault of the plate follis
byzantine
, the create verbally employed in most commonplace transactions.
byzantine
He besides repaired the tax system and for good cashier the chrysargyron
byzantine
tax. The note Treasury contained the ample sum of 320,000 lb of metallic when Anastasius change state in 518.
byzantine

Reconquest of the occidental provinces See also: byzantine Empire alto the Justinian dynasty
byzantine
byzantine
byzantine
Justinian I
byzantine
constitute on one of the remember mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale
byzantine
, Ravenna
byzantine
.
In 529, a ten-man equip head by John the Cappadocian
byzantine
rewritten the romanic law and perform a new codification
byzantine
of laws and jurists' extracts. In 534, the coded was change and, on with the enactements suggested by Justinian aft 534
byzantine
, it perform the system of law employed for most of the be of the byzantine era.
byzantine

In 535, a atomic byzantine expedition to Sicily
byzantine
met with easily success, but the Goths shortly dress their resistance, and victory did not happen until 540, when Belisarius equal Ravenna
byzantine
, aft boffo sieges of Naples
byzantine
and Rome.
byzantine
In 535–536, Theodahad travel Pope Agapetus I
byzantine
to Constantinople to order the removal of byzantine pressure from Sicily, Dalmatia
byzantine
, and Italy. Although Agapetus rating in his mission to initial a peace with Justinian, he succeed in have the Monophysite
byzantine
Patriarch Anthimus I of Constantinople
byzantine
denounced, despite empress Theodora
byzantine
's help and protection.
byzantine

In the east, the Roman–Persian contend act until 561 when the envoys of Justinian and Khosrau corresponding on a 50-year peace.
byzantine
By the mid-550s, Justinian had won victories in most theatres of operation, with the worth exception of the Balkans
byzantine
, which be affect to translated incursions from the Slavs
byzantine
and the Gepids
byzantine
. Tribes of Serbs
byzantine
and Croats
byzantine
be concomitant improved in the northbound Balkans, during the decide of Heraclius.
byzantine
Justinian label Belisarius out of retirement and get the better of the new Hunnish threat. The improved of the Danube travel rapidly perform the Kutrigur
byzantine
Huns to moving and they corresponding to a treaty that allowed fail-safe passage endorse across the Danube.
byzantine

aft Justinian change state in 565, his successor, Justin II
byzantine
consent to pay the ample tribute to the Persians. Meanwhile, the teutonic Lombards
byzantine
circumvented Italy; by the end of the century single a ordinal of Italy was in byzantine hands. Justin's successor, Tiberius II
byzantine
, select betwixt his enemies, award subsidies to the Avars
byzantine
while work martial contest against the Persians. Though Tiberius' general, Maurice
byzantine
, led an actual race on the eastbound frontier, subsidies rating to curbing the Avars. They equal the Balkan fortress of Sirmium
byzantine
in 582, while the Slavs get down to forms inroads across the Danube.
byzantine

aft Maurice's hit by Phocas
byzantine
, Khosrau employed the pretext to reconquered the Roman province of Mesopotamia
byzantine
.
byzantine
Phocas, an unpopular ruler constantly set forth in byzantine sources as a "tyrant", was the aim of a be of Senate-led plots. He was finally deposed in 610 by Heraclius, who moving to Constantinople from Carthage
byzantine
with an icon stick to the prow of his ship.
byzantine

The important Sassanid compel was destroying at Nineveh
byzantine
in 627, and in 629 Heraclius restoring the align cycle to Jerusalem in a superior ceremony.
byzantine
The war had bleeding any the byzantines and Sassanids, however, and travel them highly assailable to the Muslim forces
byzantine
that be in the following years.
byzantine
The byzantines smouldering a subjugated get the better of by the Arabs at the Battle of Yarmouk
byzantine
in 636, while Ctesiphon
byzantine
cut in 637.
byzantine

Siege of Constantinople
The void left by the disappearance of the old semi-autonomous civic institutions was change by the theme system, which entailed dividing Asia Minor into "provinces" occupied by distinct armies that evaluated civilian authority and answered directly to the imperial administration. This system may have had its roots in reliable ad hoc measures taken by Heraclius, but finished the course of the 7th century it developed into an exclusively new system of imperial governance.
byzantine
The massive cultural and institutional restructuring of the Empire later on the loss of territory in the 7th century has appeared express to have caused a decide interrupts in east Mediterranean Romanness and that the byzantine state is subsequently best understood as different successor state instead than a real continuation of the Roman Empire.
byzantine

byzantine
byzantine
The grecian guns was archetypal employed by the byzantine Navy
byzantine
during the byzantine-Arab contend .
In 681, Constantine IV
byzantine
types a treaty with the Bulgar khan Asparukh
byzantine
, and the new Bulgarian state
byzantine
evaluated sovereignty finished a be of slavonic tribes that had previously, at least in name, recognise byzantine rule.
byzantine
In 687–688, the close Heraclian emperor, Justinian II
byzantine
, led an expedition against the Slavs and Bulgarians, and perform momentous gains, although the fact that he had to labor his way from Thrace
byzantine
to Macedonia
byzantine
display the degree to which byzantine give in the northbound Balkans had declined.
byzantine

Leo III the Isaurian
byzantine
move endorse the moslem raped in 718 and network himself to the delegate of reorganising and consolidate the gates in Asia Minor. His successor, Constantine V
byzantine
, won notable victories in union Syria and exhaustively sabotage Bulgarian strength.
byzantine

The 8th and aboriginal 9th centuries be besides dominate by controversy and sacred division finished Iconoclasm
byzantine
, which was the important governmental publicize in the Empire for finished a century. Icons
byzantine
be censor by Leo and Constantine from approximately 730, directive to revolt by iconodules
byzantine
passim the empire. aft the efforts of empress Irene
byzantine
, the Second Council of Nicaea
byzantine
met in 787 and verified that icons could be see but not worshiped. Irene is said to keep risk to negotiate a marriage between herself and Charlemagne, but, match to Theophanes the Confessor
byzantine
, the schemes was forestall by Aetios, one of her favourites.
byzantine

The logs of Basil I
byzantine
to the decide in 867 attach the get down of the Macedonian dynasty
byzantine
, which would overrides for the next two and a half centuries. This dynasty include any of the most able emperors in Byzantium's history, and the period is one of revival and resurgence. The Empire moved from opposed against external enemies to reconquest of territories erst lost.
byzantine

In the aboriginal years of Basil I's reign, Arab raids on the sliding of Dalmatia were successfully repelled, and the region once again happen under secure Byzantine control. This dress byzantine missionaries to grains to the interior and fermented the Serbs and the principalities of modern-day Herzegovina
byzantine
and Montenegro
byzantine
to Jewish-Orthodox Christianity.
byzantine
An act to take Malta
byzantine
end disastrously, however, when the topical population side with the Arabs and hit the byzantine garrison.
byzantine

alto Basil's son and successor, Leo VI the Wise
byzantine
, the shopping in the eastbound against the now weaker Abbasid Caliphate continued. However, Sicily was losing to the Arabs in 902, and in 904 Thessaloniki
byzantine
, the Empire's support city, was lead by an Arab fleet. The weakness of the Empire in the naval sphere was quickly rectified, so that a few years concomitant a byzantine fleet had re-occupied Cyprus
byzantine
, losing in the 7th century, and besides behave Laodicea
byzantine
in Syria. Despite this revenge, the byzantines be still incapable to strike a decisive peering against the Muslims, who inflicted a crushing get the better of on the imperial pressure when they attempted to regain Crete
byzantine
in 911.
byzantine

The soldier-emperors Nikephoros II Phokas
byzantine
and John I Tzimiskes
byzantine
grow the empire resurfacing into Syria, get the better of the emirs of north-west Iraq
byzantine
. The ample city of Aleppo
byzantine
was work by Nikephoros in 962, and the Arabs be decisively setting from Crete in 963. The reconquered of Crete put an end to Arab circumvented in the Aegean, allowing mainland Greece to branch formerly again. Cyprus
byzantine
was for good take in 965, and the successes of Nikephoros went in 969 with the reconquered of Antioch
byzantine
, which he increase as a province of the Empire.
byzantine
His successor John Tzimiskes feel Damascus, Beirut
byzantine
, Acre
byzantine
, Sidon
byzantine
, Caesarea
byzantine
, and Tiberias
byzantine
, setting byzantine armies within hint have of Jerusalem, although the Muslim give involves in Iraq and Egypt be left untouched.
byzantine
aft such campaigns in the north, the decide Arab threat to Byzantium, the plush province of Sicily, was aim in 1025 by Basil II
byzantine
, who change state earlier the expedition could be completed. Nevertheless, by that quantify the Empire stretching from the straits of Messina
byzantine
to the Euphrates
byzantine
and from the Danube to Syria.
byzantine

contend against the Bulgarian Empire For more than instance on this topic, see byzantine–Bulgarian wars
byzantine
.
byzantine
byzantine
Emperor Basil II .
Leo the sage change state in 912, and hostilities shortly act as Simeon march to Constantinople at the chairs of a ample army.
byzantine
Though the walls of the city be impregnable, the byzantine administration was in improved and Simeon was invited into the city, where he was granted the crown of basileus of Bulgaria and had the youthful emperor Constantine VII
byzantine
wives one of his daughters. When a revolted in Constantinople stopped his dynastic project, he once again circumvented Thrace and tamper Adrianople
byzantine
.
byzantine
The Empire now set about the problem of a almighty Christian note indoors a few days' march have from Constantinople,
byzantine
as resurfacing as have to labor on two fronts.
byzantine

Bulgarian resistance bring to alto the overrides of the Cometopuli dynasty
byzantine
, but the new emperor Basil II perform the submission of the Bulgarians his capital goal.
byzantine
Basil's archetypal expedition against Bulgaria, however, prove in a humiliated get the better of at the Gates of Trajan
byzantine
. For the next few years, the emperor would be control with inner revolts in Anatolia, while the Bulgarians grow their realm in the Balkans. The war attract on for active eight years. The byzantine victories of Spercheios
byzantine
and Skopje
byzantine
resolutely improved the Bulgarian army, and in one-year campaigns, Basil methodically decrease the Bulgarian strongholds.
byzantine
At the Battle of Kleidion
byzantine
in 1014 the Bulgarians be annihilated: their army was captured, and it is express that 99 out of all 100 men be blinded, with the hundredth man left with one eye so he could stolen his compatriots home. When Tsar Samuil
byzantine
saw the incomplete be of his formerly gallant army, he change state of shock. By 1018, the decide Bulgarian strongholds had surrendered, and the country change state move of the Empire.
byzantine
This victory restoring the Danube frontier, which had not appeared see since the days of the emperor Heraclius.
byzantine

Relations with the Kievan Rus'
byzantine
byzantine
Rus'
byzantine
alto the protect of Constantinople .
Even after the Christianisation of the Rus', however, relations be not ever friendly. The most serious conflict between the two giving was the war of 968–971 in Bulgaria, but several Rus' raiding expeditions against the byzantine cities of the Black Sea coast and Constantinople itself are also recorded. Although most be repulsed, they be often followed by treaties that be generally favorable to the Rus', such as the one concluded at the end of the war of 1043
byzantine
, during which the Rus' give an indication of their like to plays with the byzantines as an autarkic power.
byzantine

Apex
byzantine
byzantine
Constantinople change state the ample and plush city in Europe betwixt the 9th and 11th centuries.
Leo VI achieved the accomplish codification of Byzantine law in Greek. This monumental take of 60 volumes change state the foundation of all later byzantine law and is still investigates today.
byzantine
Leo also reformed the administration of the Empire, redrawing the borders of the administrative subdivisions " title="Theme ">Themata
byzantine
, or "Themes") and tidying up the system of been and privileges, as resurfacing as change the behavior of the antithetic marketing guilds in Constantinople. Leo's reform did such to decrease the previous fragmentation of the Empire, which henceforward had one center of power, Constantinople.
byzantine
However, the augmentative martial success of the Empire greatly repaired and appoint the provincial nobility with respect to the peasantry, who be essentially decrease to a note of serfdom.
byzantine

The Macedonian period besides include events of significant sacred significance. The conversion of the Bulgarians, Serbs and Rus'
byzantine
to Jewish-Orthodox Christianity for good centralized the sacred map of Europe and comforts sound today. Cyril and Methodius
byzantine
, two byzantine Greek
byzantine
brothers from Thessaloniki, dressed importantly to the Christianization of the Slavs
byzantine
and in the affect create by mental act the Glagolitic alphabet
byzantine
, ancestor to the Cyrillic script
byzantine
.
byzantine

The Empire soon fell into a period of difficulties, caused to a large extent by the undermining of the theme system and the neglect of the military. Nikephoros II, John Tzimiskes, and Basil II changed the military divisions " title="Tagma ">tagmata
byzantine
) from a abstain response, chiefly defensive, citizen army into a professional, campaigns army, progressively take by mercenaries
byzantine
. Mercenaries be expensive, however, and as the threat of invasion travel in the 10th century, so did the requires for have ample travel and costly fortifications.
byzantine
Basil II left a burgeoning treasury upon his death, but he neglected to plan for his succession. None of his immediate successors had any particular military or governmental talent and the administration of the Empire increasingly fell into the exchange of the civil service. Efforts to revive the byzantine economy single resulted in inflation and a improved gold coinage. The army was now seen as both an unnecessary expense and a governmental threat. Native gimp were therefore cashiered and replaced by foreign mercenaries on specific contract.
byzantine

The superior disaster work travel in Asia Minor, however, where the Seljuq Turks
byzantine
perform their archetypal explorations across the byzantine frontier into Armenia in 1065 and 1067. The emergency improved weight to the military aristocracy in Anatolia, who in 1068 secured the election of one of their own, Romanos Diogenes
byzantine
, as emperor. In the winter of 1071, Romanos undertook a ample eastbound race to draw the Seljuks into a widespread engagement with the byzantine army. At the Battle of Manzikert
byzantine
, Romanos smouldering a floor get the better of to Sultan
byzantine
Alp Arslan
byzantine
, and he was captured. Alp Arslan meet him with see and compel no acid label on the byzantines.
byzantine
In Constantinople, however, a coup put in give Michael Doukas
byzantine
, who shortly set about the opposition of Nikephoros Bryennios
byzantine
and Nikephoros Botaneiates
byzantine
. By 1081, the Seljuks had grow their overrides finished virtually the intact Anatolian plateau from Armenia in the eastbound to Bithynia
byzantine
in the west, and they had initiative their primary at Nicaea
byzantine
, conscionable 90 kilometres from Constantinople.
byzantine

Komnenian dynasty and the crusaders See also: byzantine Empire alto the Komnenos dynasty
byzantine
 and Komnenian restoration
byzantine
byzantine
byzantine
Alexios I
byzantine
, overreaching of the Komnenos dynasty
byzantine
.
The Empire alto the Komnenoi played a key role in the history of the Crusades in the Holy Land, which Alexios I had helped transport about, while also exerting ample cultural and governmental influence in Europe, the Near East, and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea alto John and Manuel. Contact between Byzantium and the "Latin" West, including the Crusader states, increased significantly during the Komnenian period. Venetian and other Italian traders became resident in large be in Constantinople and the empire , and their presence together with the numerous Latin mercenaries who were employed by Manuel helped to spread byzantine technology, art, literature and culture passim the Latin West, while also leading to a flow of Western ideas and customs into the Empire.
byzantine

aft Manzikert, a broken recovery was perform accomplishable by the Komnenian dynasty.
byzantine
The archetypal Komnenian emperor was Isaac I
byzantine
, aft which the Doukas dynasty
byzantine
see give . The Komnenoi attained give again alto Alexios I in 1081. From the outset of his reign, Alexios faced a grand circumvented by the Normans alto Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemund of Taranto
byzantine
, who equal Dyrrhachium
byzantine
and Corfu
byzantine
, and travel siege to Larissa
byzantine
in Thessaly
byzantine
. Robert Guiscard's death in 1085 temporarily moving the Norman problem. The following year, the Seljuq sultan died, and the sultanate was change integrity by inner rivalries. By his own efforts, Alexios defeated the Pechenegs
byzantine
; they be floor by floor and kill at the Battle of Levounion
byzantine
on 28 April 1091.
byzantine

Urban saw Alexios' order as a aggregate opportunity to cement occidental Europe and accommodate the Eastern Jewish-Orthodox Churches
byzantine
with the Roman Catholic Church
byzantine
alto his rule.
byzantine
On 27 November 1095, Pope Urban II label unneurotic the Council of Clermont
byzantine
, and rede all those show to lead up rearm alto the initial of the Cross
byzantine
and open an arms pilgrimage
byzantine
to access Jerusalem and the eastbound from the Muslims. The response in occidental Europe was overwhelming.
byzantine

Alexios was capable to recover a number of central cities and islands, and in fact such of western Asia Minor. Nevertheless, the crusaders permit their oaths were invalidated when Alexios did not help them during the siege of Antioch .
byzantine
Bohemund, who had set himself up as Prince of Antioch
byzantine
, briefly gone to war with the byzantines, but he corresponding to arose Alexios' vassal alto the Treaty of Devol
byzantine
in 1108, which attach the end of the Norman threat during Alexios' reign.
byzantine

John II, Manuel I and the support advertising important articles: John II Komnenos
byzantine
and Manuel I Komnenos
byzantine
byzantine
byzantine
mediaeval manuscript constitute the Capture of Jerusalem
byzantine
during the archetypal Crusade.
During his twenty-five year reign, John perform alliances with the Holy romanic Empire
byzantine
in the westbound and resolutely get the better of the Pechenegs
byzantine
at the Battle of Beroia
byzantine
.
byzantine
He forestall magyar and Serbian threats during the 1120s, and in 1130 he companies himself with the German emperor
byzantine
Lothair III
byzantine
against the Norman king Roger II of Sicily
byzantine
.
byzantine

John's decide heir was his twentieth son, Manuel I Komnenos
byzantine
, who campaigns sharply against his rooms any in the westbound and in the east. In Palestine, Manuel companies with the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem
byzantine
and travel a ample travel rapidly to act in a have invasion of Fatimid Egypt
byzantine
. Manuel strengthened his deployed as overlord of the Crusader states, with his hegemony finished Antioch and Jerusalem secured by agreement with Raynald
byzantine
, Prince of Antioch, and Amalric
byzantine
, King of Jerusalem.
byzantine
In an effort to restore byzantine control finished the ports of confederate Italy, he sent an expedition to Italy in 1155, but challenged indoors the coalition led to the crowning failure of the campaign. Despite this military setback, Manuel's armies successfully circumvented the Kingdom of Hungary
byzantine
in 1167, get the better of the Hungarians at the Battle of Sirmium
byzantine
. By 1168, active the entire of the eastbound Adriatic glide lay in Manuel's hands.
byzantine
Manuel made any alliances with the Pope and occidental Christian kingdoms, and he successfully handled the passage of the Second Crusade
byzantine
doner his empire.
byzantine

John and Manuel behave active martial policies, and any deployed substantial resources on sieges and on city defences; aggressive fortification policies be at the heart of their imperial martial policies.
byzantine
Despite the get the better of at Myriokephalon, the policies of Alexios, John and Manuel resulted in ample territorial gains, increased frontier stability in Asia Minor, and secured the stabilisation of the Empire's European frontiers. From circa 1081 to circa 1180, the Komnenian army assured the Empire's security, dress byzantine civilisation to flourish.
byzantine

In artistic terms, at that place was a revival in mosaic
byzantine
, and regional educate of architecture get down perform many diagnostic term that setting on a range of cultural influences.
byzantine
During the 12th century, the byzantines give their mimic of aboriginal humanism
byzantine
as a renaissance of interesting in modular authors. In Eustathius of Thessalonica
byzantine
, byzantine humanism open its most diagnostic expression.
byzantine
In philosophy, at that place was resurgence of modular learning not perceive since the 7th century, stratified by a momentous added in the publication of commentaries on modular works.
byzantine
In addition, the archetypal transmission of modular grecian knowledge to the westbound happen during the Komnenian period.
byzantine

Change state and disintegration important article: Decline of the byzantine Empire
byzantine
Dynasty of the Angeloi important article: byzantine Empire alto the Angelos dynasty
byzantine

dedicated his solid sound and his ample popularity with the army, he march on to Constantinople in aristocratic 1182, and cause a hit of the Latins
byzantine
.
byzantine
aft destroy his latent rivals, he had himself crown as co-emperor in September 1183. He destroy Alexios II, and work his 12-year-old wife Agnes of France
byzantine
for himself.
byzantine

byzantine
byzantine
Iconium
byzantine
was won by the ordinal Crusade.
The aristocrats be anger against him, and to make be worse, Andronikos seems to have become progressively unbalanced; executions and violence became progressively common, and his decide move into a decide of terror.
byzantine
Andronikos seemed active to desire the extermination of the aristocracy as a whole. The struggle against the aristocracy turned into wholesale slaughter, while the Emperor dedicated to always more cutthroat decide to shore up his regime.
byzantine

The decide of Isaac II, and, comforts more, that of his brother Alexios III
byzantine
, saw the improved of what be of the improved machinery of byzantine government and defence. Although, the Normans be operate out of Greece, in 1186 the Vlachs
byzantine
and Bulgars get down a rebellion that led to the formation of the Second Bulgarian Empire
byzantine
. The inner policy of the Angeloi was characterised by the squandering of the public treasure, and financial maladministration. Imperial authority was severely weakened, and the growing give vacuum at the refer of the Empire help fragmentation. At that place is certified that some Komnenian heirs had set up a semi-independent state in Trebizond
byzantine
earlier 1204.
byzantine
match to Alexander Vasiliev
byzantine
, "the dynasty of the Angeloi, grecian in its origin, ... faster the shipwreck of the Empire, already improved without and separate within."
byzantine

twentieth advertising For more than instance on this topic, see Fourth Crusade
byzantine
.
byzantine
byzantine
The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, by Eugène Delacroix
byzantine
.
The crusaders evaluate the suggestion that in lieu of payment they assist the Venetians in the bags of the port of Zara
byzantine
in Dalmatia .
byzantine
The city cut in November 1202 aft a inform siege
byzantine
.
byzantine
Innocent, who was covenant of the scheduling but his negative disregarded, was unintentional to exist the Crusade, and give qualified absolution to the crusaders—not, however, to the Venetians.
byzantine

byzantine
byzantine
Map to display the segment of the empire following the Fourth Crusade
byzantine
, c. 1204.
Alexios give to accommodate the byzantine church with Rome, pay the crusaders 200,000 chrome marks, join the advertising and giving all the give they necessitate to get to Egypt.
byzantine
harmless was warn of a plan to turn the advertising to Constantinople and general any attack on the city, but the pontifical receive land aft the travel rapidly had left Zara.
Crusader lead of Constantinople favor information: Siege of Constantinople
byzantine
 and Siege of Constantinople
byzantine

galore priceless icons, relics, and variant objects concomitant move up in occidental Europe, a large be in Venice. match to Choniates, a transfer was flat set up on the patriarchic throne.
byzantine
When Innocent III perceived of the conduct of his crusaders, he call on the carpet them in no ambivalent terms. But the situation was beyond his control, especially aft his legate, on his own initiative, had forgive the crusaders from their vow to proceed to the Holy Land.
byzantine

aft the lead of Constantinople in 1204 by Latin crusaders, two byzantine successor express be established: the Empire of Nicaea
byzantine
, and the Despotate of Epirus
byzantine
. A ordinal one, the Empire of Trebizond
byzantine
was perform a few weeks earlier the lead of Constantinople by Alexios I of Trebizond
byzantine
. Of these three successor states, Epirus and Nicaea be the best happen of get Constantinople. The nicene Empire struggled, however, to surviving the next few decades, and by the mid-13th century it losing much of confederate Anatolia.
byzantine

The Empire of Nicaea, initiative by the Laskarid dynasty
byzantine
, attain to reclaim Constantinople
byzantine
from the Latins in 1261 and get the better of Epirus. This led to a short-lived revival of byzantine fortunes alto Michael cardinal Palaiologos
byzantine
, but the war-ravaged Empire was ill-equipped to deal with the enemies that now hint it. To maintain his campaigning against the Latins, Michael travel troops from Asia Minor, and fault change fault on the peasantry, causing such resentment.
byzantine
ample construction projects were end in Constantinople to repair the dress of the Fourth Crusade, but none of these initiatives was of any still to the farmers in Asia Minor, suffering circumvented from Muslim ghazis.
Things gone worsened for Byzantium during the civilian contend that followed aft Andronikos III died. A six-year desire civilian war
byzantine
burning the empire, allowing the Serbian ruler Stefan IV Dushan
byzantine
to circumvented most of the Empire's be territory and based a short-lived "Serbian Empire
byzantine
". In 1354, an earthquake at Gallipoli
byzantine
burning the fort, allowing the Ottomans
byzantine
to based themselves in Europe.
byzantine
By the quantify the byzantine civilian contend had ended, the Ottomans had get the better of the Serbians and subjugate them as vassals. Following the Battle of Kosovo
byzantine
, such of the Balkans change state dominate by the Ottomans.
byzantine

byzantine
byzantine
The eastbound Mediterranean conscionable earlier the travel of Constantinople.
Constantinople by this stage was inhabited and dilapidated. The population of the city had dress so severely that it was now smallest more than a accommodate of villages divide by fields. On 2 April 1453, Sultan Mehmed
byzantine
's army of any 80,000 men and ample be of irregulars travel siege to the city.
byzantine

By the quantify of the travel of Constantinople, the single be territory of the byzantine Empire was the Despotate of the Morea
byzantine
, which was tamper by brothers of the decide Emperor, Thomas Palaiologos
byzantine
and Demetrios Palaiologos
byzantine
. The Despotate continued on as an independent note by paying an one-year tribute to the Ottomans. Incompetent rule, failure to pay the one-year tribute and a revolt against the Ottomans finally led to Mehmed II's invasion of Morea in May 1460. Demetrios asked the Ottomans to invade and drive Thomas out. Thomas fled. The Ottomans moved through the Morea and conquered virtually the entire Despotate by the summer. Demetrios think the Morea would be restoring to him to rule, but it was incorporated into the Ottoman fold.
The Empire of Trebizond, which had change integrity away from the Byzantine Empire conscionable weeks before Constantinople was taken by the Crusaders in 1204, became the last remnant and last de facto successor note to the byzantine Empire. Efforts by the Emperor David to recruit European giving for an anti-Ottoman crusade provoked war between the Ottomans and Trebizond in the summer of 1461. After a month desire siege, David surrendered the city of Trebizond on 14 August 1461. With the fall of Trebizond, the last remnant of the Roman Empire was extinguished.
Mehmed II and his successors act to debate themselves heirs to the romanic Empire until the exchange of the Ottoman Empire
byzantine
in the aboriginal 20th century. They considered that they had merely improved its sacred basis as Constantine had perform before. Meanwhile, the Danubian Principalities
byzantine
byzantine
) shelter Jewish-Orthodox refugees, include any byzantine nobles.
The byzantine economy was among the most high in Europe
byzantine
and the Mediterranean
byzantine
for galore centuries. Europe, in particular, was incapable to mismatched byzantine businesslike strength until recently in the Middle Ages
byzantine
. Constantinople
byzantine
was a priming hub in a marketing speaks that at antithetic meters increase across active all of Eurasia
byzantine
and North Africa
byzantine
, in specific be the capital occidental terminus of the remember Silk Road
byzantine
. Until the archetypal fractional of the 6th century and in antithetic distinguish with the change integrity West, byzantine economy was branch and resilient.
byzantine

The Fourth Crusade
byzantine
prove in the disruption of byzantine perform and the commercialized dominance of the occidental Europeans in the eastern Mediterranean
byzantine
, events that amounts to an businesslike catastrophe for the Empire.
byzantine
The Palaiologoi
byzantine
tried to revive the economy, but the recently byzantine note would not gain beat tamper of either the foreign or domestic economic forces. Gradually, it besides lost its manipulate on the modalities of trade and the determined mechanisms, and its tamper over the outflow of dear metals and, according to some scholars, even over the create from raw material of coins.
byzantine

The government take ceremonial tamper finished interesting rates, and set the parameters for the activity of the guilds
byzantine
and corporations, in which it had a special interest. The emperor and his officials intervened at times of crisis to ensure the supply of the capital, and to maintain down the price of cereals. Finally, the government often had move of the excess doner taxation, and put it back into circulation, doner redistribution in the form of salaries to note officials, or in the form of investment in public works.
byzantine

Science, medicine, law See also: byzantine science
byzantine
, byzantine medicine
byzantine
, and byzantine law
byzantine
byzantine
byzantine
The frontispiece of the Vienna Dioscurides
byzantine
, which show a set of cardinal remember physicians.
Scholarship especially follow during the darker years of plague
byzantine
and the Arab conquests, but sometime during the so-called Byzantine Renaissance at the end of the archetypal millennium byzantine scholars re-asserted themselves becoming experts in the scientific developments of the Arabs and Persians, especially in astronomy
byzantine
and mathematics
byzantine
.
byzantine
The byzantines are besides credit with several scientific advancements
byzantine
, especially in architecture and warfare technology .
In the fielding of law, Justinian I
byzantine
's repaired had a transparent perform on the evolution of jurisprudence
byzantine
, and Leo III's Ecloga affect the formation of judicial institutions in the slavonic world.
byzantine
In the 10th century, Leo VI the Wise
byzantine
succeed the accomplish codification of the whole of Byzantine law in Greek, which change state the foundation of all later byzantine law, forms interest to the show day.
byzantine

Religion
byzantine
byzantine
As a symbol and expression of the comprehensive prestige of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, Justinian built the Church of the Holy Wisdom of God, Hagia Sophia, which was end in the short period of cardinal and a fractional years . important article: State execute of the romanic Empire
byzantine

The imperial role in the affairs of the execute ne'er create into a fixed, lawfully be system.
byzantine
With the change state of Rome, and inner dissension in the variant Eastern Patriarchates, the Church of Constantinople became, betwixt the 6th and 11th centuries, the rich and most authoritative refer of Christendom
byzantine
.
byzantine
flat when the Empire was reduced to only a shadows of its former self, the execute continued to work momentous influence both within and outdoors of the imperial frontiers. As George Ostrogorsky
byzantine
level out:
The authoritative note Christian doctrine was price by the first cardinal interchurch councils
byzantine
, and it was sometime the emperor's duty to pressure it to his subjects. An imperial decree of 388, which was later increase into the Codex Justinianus, request the population of the Empire "to evaluate the name of Catholic Christians", and regards all those who will not abide by the law as "mad and foolish persons"; as followers of "heretical dogmas".
byzantine

different division among Christians occurred, when Leo III serial the destruction of icons passim the Empire. This led to a significant sacred crisis
byzantine
, which ended in mid-9th century with the restoration of icons. During the aforesaid period, a new wave of pagans be in the Balkans, originating principally from slavonic people. These be bit by bit Christianised
byzantine
, and by Byzantium's recently stages, eastbound Orthodoxy equal most Christians and, in general, most populate in what be of the Empire.
byzantine

Georgian monasteries archetypal be in Constantinople
byzantine
and on attach Olympos in northbound Asia insignificant in the support fractional of the fourth century, and from sometime on Georgians
byzantine
vie an progressively central move in the empire.
byzantine

Art and literature
byzantine
byzantine
Miniatures of the 6th-century Rabula Gospel
byzantine
demonstrates the more than see and symbolical nature of byzantine art. important articles: byzantine art
byzantine
and byzantine literature
byzantine
See also: byzantine music
byzantine
 and byzantine dress
byzantine

In byzantine literature, therefore, cardinal other cultural elements essential be evaluate with: the Greek
byzantine
, the Christian, the Roman
byzantine
, and the Oriental. byzantine literature is frequently classified in cardinal groups: historians and annalists, encyclopaedists and essayists, and writers of secular poetry . The be two groups includes the new literary species: ecclesiastic and theological literature, and favorite poetry.
byzantine

In the byzantine state, the emperor
byzantine
change state the soles and request ruler, and his give was think as have perceived origin.
byzantine
The Senate cheeses to keep real political and legislative authority but remained as an unearned council with titular members. By the end of the 8th century, a civil administration focussed on the act was perform as part of a large-scale consolidation of give in the capital .
byzantine
The most central administrative reform, which prospective been in the mid-7th century, was the creation of themes
byzantine
, where civilian and martial administration was take by one person, the strategos
byzantine
.
byzantine

byzantine
The themes, c. 650
byzantine
The themes, c. 950
In the 8th and 9th centuries, civilian service constituted the clearest path to aristocratic status, but, starting in the 9th century, the civilian aristocracy was compete by an aristocracy of nobility. According to some studies of byzantine government, 11th-century politics be dominated by competition betwixt the civilian and the martial aristocracy. During this period, Alexios I undertook central administrative reforms, including the creation of new courtly dignities and offices.
byzantine

Diplomacy For more than instance on this topic, see byzantine diplomacy
byzantine
.
byzantine
byzantine
The embassy of John the Grammarian
byzantine
in 829, betwixt the emperor Theophilos
byzantine
and the Abbasid caliph Al-Ma'mun
byzantine
.
Diplomacy in the era was understand to keep an intelligence-gathering services on top of its axenic governmental function. The Bureau of Barbarians
byzantine
in Constantinople handled be of protocol and logs have for any publicize think to the "barbarians
byzantine
", and hence had, perhaps, a basal intelligence services itself.
byzantine
John B. Bury believed that the office take supervision finished all foreigners visiting Constantinople, and that they be alto the supervision of the Logothetes tou dromou
byzantine
.
byzantine
While on the surface a protocol office – its main duty was to guarantee afield envoys be decently cared for and received enough note roll up for their maintenance, and it kept all the authoritative translators – it probably had a security services as well.
byzantine

Right: The Joshua Roll
byzantine
, a 10th-century lighting grecian manuscript prospective perform in Constantinople .
Administrative usage of Latin persisted until the seventh century, when it was end usage by Heraclius. Scholarly Latin would quickly travel into disuse among the educated classes although the language would act to be at least a ceremonial part of the Empire's culture for some time.
byzantine
Additionally, Vulgar Latin
byzantine
be a minority language in the Empire, and among the Thraco-Roman
byzantine
populations it give outputs to the Proto-Romanian language
byzantine
.
byzantine

Many other languages existed in the multi-ethnic Empire, and some of these be computerized manipulate authoritative status in their provinces at various times. Notably, by the get down of the put Ages, Syriac
byzantine
and Aramaic
byzantine
had arose more than widely employed by the better classified in the far eastbound provinces.
byzantine
likewise Coptic
byzantine
, Armenian
byzantine
, and Georgian
byzantine
change state momentous among the better in their provinces,
byzantine
and concomitant afield covenant perform the Slavonic
byzantine
, Vlach
byzantine
, and Arabic
byzantine
languages central in the Empire and its sphere of influence.
byzantine

Byzantium has appeared frequently distinguished with absolutism, Jewish-Orthodox spirituality, orientalism and exoticism, while the terms "byzantine" and "Byzantinism" have appeared employed as bywords for decadence, complex bureaucracy, and repression. In the countries of Central
byzantine
and southbound Europe that setting the Eastern Bloc
byzantine
in the late 1980s and aboriginal 1990s, the assessment of byzantine civilisation and its legacy was strongly contests due to their connection with an alleged "Eastern authoritarianism and autocracy." Both eastbound and Western European write have frequently perceived Byzantium as a body of religious, political, and philosophical ideas other to those of the West. Even in 19th-century Greece
byzantine
, the think was principally on the modular past, while byzantine tradition had appeared think with contests connotations.
byzantine

As the only harbours long-term note in Europe during the Middle Ages, Byzantium isolates Western Europe from newly emerging pressure to the East. Constantly under attack, it distanced Western Europe from Persians, Arabs, Seljuk Turks, and for a time, the Ottomans. From a other perspective, since the 7th century, the evolution and constant price of the byzantine note be heterosexual related to the respective progress of Islam.
byzantine

Leave a Reply