The crown of aragon
crown of aragon
was a composite monarchy
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,
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besides today think of to as a confederation
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of idiosyncratic polities
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or kingdoms
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tamper by one king with a personal
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and dynastic union
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of the Kingdom of Aragon
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and the county of Barcelona
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. At the height of its give in the 14th and 15th centuries, the crowned of Aragon was a thalassocracy
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manipulate a ample spread of the present-day eastbound Spain
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and southwestern France
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, as well as any of the major islands and mainland possessions stretching across the Mediterranean as far as Greece. The component realms of the crowned were not connects politically except at the pointed of the king, who tamper finished all autonomous polity according to its own laws, increase funds under all tax structure, dealing individually with all cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the crowned of Aragon functioned more as a confederacy
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of cultures instead than as a only country. In this sense, the ample crowned of Aragon must not be confusing with one of its requisite parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it work its name.
restrict 1 Context
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2 History
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2.1 Origin
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2.2 Expansion
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2.3 yankee with Castile
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2.4 Dissolution
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2.5 federal revisionism
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3 Pennon
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4 Institutions
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5 Capital
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6 Composition
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7 See also
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8 Notes
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9 References
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9.1 Bibliography
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10 outermost links
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Formally, the governmental refer of the crowned of Aragon was Zaragoza
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, where kings be crown at La Seo Cathedral
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. directive cultural and businesslike setting of the crowned of Aragon be the cities of Barcelona
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and Valencia
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. Finally, Palma
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was an cumulative central city and seaport
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.
The countries that are nowadays characterized as Spain and Portugal winter the Middle Ages
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aft 722 in an sporadic risk label the Reconquista
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. This risk tackling the union Christian kingdoms against the moslem taifa
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petty kingdoms
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of the South
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and against all other.
The crowned of Aragon has appeared considered by some as an empire which tamper in the Mediterranean for hundreds of years, with the power to set tamper finished the intact sea
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. It was indeed, at its height, one of the major powers
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in Europe.
The Aragonese empire arose in 1137, when the Kingdom of Aragon
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and the County of Barcelona
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compound by dynastic union
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upon the marriage of Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona
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and Petronilla of Aragon
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; their idiosyncratic term have in the person of their son Alfonso II of Aragon
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, who ascended to the throne in 1162. This union respected the endangered institutions and parliaments of any territories. Although the County of Barcelona had more than wealth , the combined state was initially known as Regno, Dominio et Corona Aragonum et Catalonie, and later as Corona Regum Aragoniae, Corona Aragonum or simply Aragon. This was due to the total loss of Catalan influence, the renunciation of the family rights of the counts of Barcelona in Occitania
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,
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and the extinction of the House of Aragon and Barcelona
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in 1410. accordingly the monarchs designated themselves de Aragon, and Aragon change state egregious as an Iberian kingdom think to the House of Jiménez
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which tamper finished Navarre , Castile, Leon and Galicia and Aragon .
Raymond Berengar IV, the archetypal ruler of the connects dynasty, label himself census of Barcelona and "Prince of Aragon".
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Expansion
Soon, Alfonso II of Aragon and Barcelona
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behave himself to tamper Valencia as the Aragonese nobility demanded. But he sequenced seeking his father the expansion and consolidation of the House of Barcelona manipulate in Occitania
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.
From the 9th century, the dukes of Aquitaine
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, the kings of Navarre
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, the counts of Foix
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, the counts of Toulouse
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and the counts of Barcelona
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plays in their act at manipulate the antithetic pays
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of Occitania
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. And the home of Barcelona attain to overall his manipulate in the area that is now southbound of France, by strong family ties, untold as in case of the County of Provence
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, County of Toulouse
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and County of Foix
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. The rebellion of the Cathars
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or Albigensians rejected the authority and the teachings of the Catholic execute and led to the loss of the southern France possessions. Pope Innocent III called upon Phillip II of France to silence the Albigensians—The Albigensian Crusade
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, which led to bring the Occitania region tighten alto the tamper of the King of France, and the Capetian dynasty from union France.
King James I
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lead the era of expansion to the South, by tamper and coeducational Majorca
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and a solid move of the Kingdom of Valencia
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to the Crown. With the Treaty of Corbeil
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, which was basing upon the principle of earthy frontiers,
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cut claims finished Catalonia happen to an end. The general principle was clear, that Catalan manipulate northbound of the Pyrenees, beyond the Roussillon
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, Vallespir
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, Conflent
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and Capcir
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, was to cease.
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James I had incarnate that dedicated his pressure and confuse his energies in act to keep a finance in France could single end in disaster.
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On January 1266, crowd I circumvented and equal Murcia, improved his own men, largely Catalans, there; and exchange Murcia finished to Castile by the treaty of Cazorla.
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Valencia was eventually perform a new kingdom with its own institutions and not an extension of Aragón
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as the Aragonese noblemen behave since flat earlier the creation of the crowned of Aragon. The Kingdom of Valencia
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became the ordinal member of the crowned unneurotic with Aragon and Catalonia. Majorca judicial status was not ranked at the same level of the aforesaid cardinal members.
When Peter III consent to impose the Charters of Aragon in Valencia, the nobles and towns united in Zaragoza to demand a confirmation of their privileges, which the king had to permit on 1283. hence get down the Union of Aragon
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, which create the give of the Justícia to indirect betwixt the king and the Aragonese plush men.
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By provide of Pope Boniface VIII
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to crowd II, the kingdoms of Sardinia and Corsica
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be lengthening to the Crown in 1297, though it would not be for more than than a century that they be travel under control. By marriage of Peter IV
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to Maria of Sicily
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, the Kingdom of Sicily
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, as resurfacing as the duchies of Athens
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and Neopatria
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, be lengthening to the crowned in 1381. The grecian possessions be for good losing to Nerio I Acciaioli
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in 1388 and Sicily was separate in the exchange of Martin I
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from 1395 to 1409, but the Kingdom of Naples
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was lengthening eventually in 1442 by conquest of Alfonso V
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.
The fact that the King was express emotion on settling new kingdoms instead of simply expanding the endangered kingdoms was a move of a give struggle that tackling the interests of the king against those of the endangered nobility
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. This affect was besides alto way in most of the European express that successfully perform the convert to the Early Modern
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state. Thus, the new territories obtain from the Moors
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—namely Valencia and Majorca—were normally computerized fueros
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—Catalan furs—as an instrument of self-government in ordering to contents the power of nobility in these new acquisitions and, at the aforesaid time, added their allegiance to the monarchy itself. The curve in the rooms kingdom of Castile
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was instead similar, any kingdoms powering impetus to the Reconquista
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by provide different rating of self-government either to cities or territories, rather of setting the new territories alto the operating overrides of nobility.
yankee with Castile
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Ferdinand V
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and Isabella I
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, King and further of Castile
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and León, and concomitant of Aragon, Valencia, Sicily, and Majorca
Later, his grandson King Ferdinand II of Aragon
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obtaining the union Catalan counties—Roussillon and Cerdagne—which had appeared losing to France and besides the kingdom of Navarre
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, which had tardive connected the crowned of Aragon but had appeared losing aft inner dynastic disputes.
The literary evocation of past splendour remember correctly the ample age of the 13th and 14th centuries, when Valencia, Majorca and Sicily were conquered, the population growth could be handled without social conflict, and the urban prosperity, which peaked in 1345, perform the institutional and cultural achievements of the Crown.
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The Aragonese crown's wealth and give stagnated and its authority was steadily delegate to the new Spanish crowned after that date—the demographic growth was partly match by the expulsion of the Jews
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from Spain , Muslims
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and the expulsion of the Moriscos
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.
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It was incapable to forestall the loss of Roussillon in 1659, the loss of Minorca and its Italian domains in 1707–1716, and the imposition of cut language on Roussillon and Castilian as the language of government in all the old Aragonese Crown lands in Spain .
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any of the nationalist movements
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in Spain debate the former kingdoms of the crowned of Aragon to be the foundation of their nations, the Catalan federal movement being the most prominent. Spanish nationalism
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, on the variant hand, tends to travel more than importance on the concomitant dynastic union with the crowned of Castile, considering it the origin of one Spanish nation.
The Romanticism
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of the 19th century Catalan Renaixença
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evoked a "Pyrenean realm" that equal more than to the vision of 13th century troubadours
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than to the historical reality of the Crown.
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This vision surviving nowadays as "a avid create by mental act of change culture".
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Thus, the history of the crowned of Aragon be a politically fill topic in contemporary Spain,
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especially when it comes to asserting the pointed of independence bask by constituents of the Crown, seeking the County of Barcelona, which is sometimes used to verified the pointed of autonomy that should be bask by modern Catalonia and other territories.
Pennon important article: Coat of rearm of the crowned of Aragon
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crown of aragon
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copper of rearm of Aragon
Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia each had a legislative body, characterized as the Cortes in Aragon or Corts in Catalonia and Valencia. A Diputación widespread was open in each, proper characterized as a Generalidad in Aragon and Generalitat
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in Catalonia and Valencia.
primary
The crowned was perform up of the following express :
term write of entity state
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Andorra
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Co-principality
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Briefly evaluate by Aragon in 1396 and once again in 1512
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Aragon
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Kingdom
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connected with the County of Barcelona
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in 1162 to perform the crowned
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Athens
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Duchy
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obtaining doner the Kingdom of Sicily in 1381; losing in 1388
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Catalonia
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County, concomitant Principality
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compound with Aragon in 1162 to perform the crowned
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Gévaudan
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County obtaining in 1166 by Alfonso II
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; losing in 1307
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Majorca
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Kingdom open in 1231 by crowd I, include Roussillon
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and Montpellier
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, as move of the crowned List of Aragonese monarchs
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List of Sicilian monarchs
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Prince of Girona
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state ^
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Corona d'Aragón
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) Corona d'Aragó
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, occidental Catalan: 
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) Corona Aragonum
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Corona de Aragón
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) ^
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Domingo J. Buesa Conde, in El rey de Aragón postulates that the crown of aragon's political capital of Zaragoza, though it was not the economic one, nor the administrative one, due to the court being itinerative in the 14th century, took its start from the decrees of Peter IV of Aragon establishing his coronation there.: "Pedro IV parte de la aceptación de la capital del Ebro como "cabeza del Reino". por eso hizo saber a sus súbditos que Mandamos que este sacrosanto sacramento de la unción sea recibido de manos del metropolitano en la ciudad de Zaragoza al tiempo que recordaba: "...y como quiera que los reyes de Aragón están obligados a recibir la unción en la ciudad de Zaragoza, que es la cabeza del Reino de Aragón, el cual reino es nuestra principal designación—esto es, apellido—y título, consideramos conveniente y razonable que, del mismo modo, en ella reciban los reyes de Aragón el honor de la coronación y las demás insignias reales, igual que vimos a los emperadores recibir la corona en la ciudad de Roma, cabeza de su imperio. Zaragoza, antigua capital del reino de Aragón, se ha convertido en la capital política de la Corona . References ^ a
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b
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Pablo Fernández Albaladejo . Los Borbones: dinastía y memoria de nación en la España del siglo XVIII...
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, Marcial Pons Historia. ^ a
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b
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Historical Dictionary of the Catalans.Buffery-Marcer.2011
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The crown of aragon was a confederation of kingdoms ^ a
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b
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Captives and Their Saviors in the mediaeval crowned of Aragon. Rodriguez.2007
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The crowned of Aragon was a confederation of idiosyncratic polities tamper by one king, the king of Aragon ^
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Henry Kamen, Empire: how Spain change state a multinational power, 1492-1762, 2002:20. ^
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Marqués de Lozoya, Historia de España, Salvat, ed. 1952, vol. II paged 60: "El Reino de Aragon, el Principado de Cataluña, el Reino de Valencia y el Reino de Mallorca, constituyen una confederación de Estados". ^
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Thomas N. Bisson, The mediaeval crowned of Aragon: a shorts history, 1986, chapter II. The age of the aboriginal Count-Kings , paged 31 ^
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Cateura Benàsser, Pau. "Els impostos indirectes en el regne de Mallorca."
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. Retrieved 2008-04-24.  El tallest dels Temps, 14. Mallorca: El Tall, 1996. ISBN 84-96019-28-4
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. 127pp. ^
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Michel Roquebert
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, Histoire des Cathares, 2002, Ed. Perrin, ISBN 2-262-01894-4
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. ^
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Stanley G. Payne
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. "Chapter Five. The tower of Aragon-Catalonia"
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. A History of Spain and Portugal. Retrieved 2008-07-02.  ^
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Bisson T. N. chapter II. The age of the Early Count-Kings , page 36 ^ a
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b
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c
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H. J. Chaytor. "Chapter 6, crowd the Conqueror"
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. A History of Aragon and Catalonia. Retrieved 2008-04-25.  ^
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Bisson 1986:67 ^ a
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b
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Bisson 1986:87–88 ^
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H. J. Chaytor. "7, Pedro III"
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. A History of Aragon and Catalonia. Retrieved 2008-05-03.  ^
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Stanley G. Payne
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. "Chapter Nine, The connects Spanish Monarchy"
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. A History of Spain and Portugal. Retrieved 2008-04-17.  ^
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H. J. Chaytor. "Juan II. yankee of Aragon with Castile"
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. A History of Aragon and Catalonia. Retrieved 2008-04-17.  ^
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Richard Herr. "Chapter 3, The building of Spain"
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. An historical behave on contemporary Spain. Retrieved 2008-04-17.  ^
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Bisson T. N. Epilogue, page 188-189 ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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Bisson T. N. Epilogue, page 189 ^ a
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b
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c
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Bisson T. N. Epilogue, paged 188 ^
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http://www.heraldo.es/noticias/aragon/2012/11/29/la_web_generalitat_rebautiza_corona_aragon_como_quot_nacion_catalana_independiente_quot_213297_300.html
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^
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Léon Jéquier. Actes du II Colloque world d'héraldique. Breassone 1981. Académie internationale d'héraldique. Les Origines des armoiries. Paris. ISBN 2-86377-030-6
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. ^
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"La bandera de Aragón"
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. Autonomical Government of Aragon. 6 gimp 1997. Retrieved 2008-04-20.  paged on the authoritative initial of Aragon and the origin of the "palos de gules" or "barras de Aragón" ^
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History schedule , mediaeval Historic, Rome 1998, ISBN 88-7989-406-4
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^
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A classify of investigators of the UIB
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request by fill Josep Juan Vidal. "Felipe II, the King that opposed Majorca but didn't desire to accept all its privileges"
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. Servei de Comunicacions de la UIB. collect from the original
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on 29 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-17.  Bibliography T. N. Bisson . Clarendon Press – Oxford, ed. The mediaeval crowned of Aragon. A shorts story. ISBN
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 0-19-820236-9
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.  |accessdate= need |url= outermost think Catalan literature in crowned of Aragon
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v
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t
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e
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Spain in the put Ages
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Early put Ages
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Visigoths
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Visigothic Kingdom
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Suebi
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Kingdom of the Suebi
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Province of Spania
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Duchy of Cantabria
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Duchy of Vasconia
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Al-Andalus
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Caliphate of Córdoba
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Banu Qasi
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Taifas
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Almoravid Caliphate
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Almohad Caliphate
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Emirate of Granada
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Reconquista
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Kingdom of Asturias
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Kingdom of León
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Kingdom of Castile
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Crown of Castile
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Marca Hispanica
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County of Barcelona
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Kingdom of Navarre
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Kingdom of Viguera
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Kingdom of Aragon
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→ crowned of Aragon Visigothic monarchs
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Suebic monarchs
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Monarchs of al-Andalus
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Monarchs of Aragon
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Monarchs of Asturias
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Monarchs of Barcelona
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Monarchs of Castile
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Monarchs of Galicia
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Monarchs of Granada
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Monarchs of León
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Monarchs of Majorca
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Monarchs of Navarre
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Monarchs of Valencia
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