James I the Conqueror was the King of Aragon
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, Count of Barcelona
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, and Lord of Montpellier
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from 1213 to 1276. His desire decide saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon
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on all sides: into Valencia
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to the south, Languedoc
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to the north, and the Balearic Islands
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to the east. By a treaty with Louis IX of France
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, he grab the county of Barcelona
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from nominal cut suzerainty and incorporating it into his crown. His move in the Reconquista
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was akin in Mediterranean Spain to that of his modern Ferdinand III of Castile
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in Andalusia
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.
restrict 1 aboriginal life and decide until majority
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2 Acquisition of Urgell
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3 Relations with France and Navarre
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4 Reconquest
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5 advertising of 1269
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6 act of art, learning, and literature
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7 Succession
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8 Marriages and children
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9 Ancestry
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10 Notes
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11 References
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12 outermost links
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crowd was born at Montpellier
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as the single son of Peter II of Aragon
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and Marie of Montpellier
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, heiress of William cardinal of Montpellier
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and Eudokia Komnene
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. As a child, crowd was a consign in the give politics of Provence
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, where his forms was act in risk help the Cathar
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heretics of Albi
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against the Albigensian Crusaders
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led by Simon IV de Montfort
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, Earl of Leicester
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, who were trying to hit them. Peter risk to placate the union crusaders by put a marriage between his son James and Simon's daughter. He entrusted the boy to be better in Montfort's care in 1211, but was soon compel to lead up rearm against him, dying at the Battle of Muret
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on 12 September 1213. Montfort would volitionally keep employed crowd as a convey of extending his own give had not the Aragonese question to Pope harmless III
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, who alleging that Montfort surrendered him. crowd was exchange over, at Carcassonne
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, in May or June 1214, to the papal legate
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Peter of Benevento
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.
In 1221, he was club to Eleanor
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, daughter of Alfonso cardinal of Castile
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and Leonora of England
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. The consecutive six years of his decide be beat of rebellions on the move of the nobles. By the Peace of Alais
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of 31 gimp 1227, the nobles and the king happen to terms.
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Acquisition of Urgell
crowd meet on behalf of Aurembiax, whom he owing protection. He obtaining Guerau off and allowed Aurembiax to obtaining her territory, which she did at Lleida
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, prospective besides proper one of James' aboriginal mistresses.
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She capitulates Lleida to crowd and corresponding to retain Urgell in fief for him. On her death in 1231, crowd exchange the Balearic Islands for Urgell with her widower, Peter of Portugal
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.
Relations with France and Navarre
crowd risk to perform a note been the Pyrenees
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in ordering to match the give of France northbound of the Loire
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. As with the such before Visigothic
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attempt, this policy was victim to physical, cultural, and governmental obstacles. As in the inspect of Navarre, he change state to open into dangerous adventures. By the Treaty of Corbeil
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, types in May 1258, he end his distinguish with Louis IX of France
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, shopping the renunciation of cut claims to sovereignty finished Catalonia.
Reconquest
besides dress during the reconquest be Minorca
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1232 and Ibiza
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1235). Valencia surrendered to Aragonese overrides on 28 September 1238 following an ample race that include the Siege of Burriana
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and the decide Battle of the Puig
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, where the Aragonese commander, Bernardo Guillermo de Entenza
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, who was besides the king's cousin, change state from humiliated conventional in action. Chroniclers say he employed gunpowder
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in the siege of Museros
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castle.
The "Khan of Tartary" Abaqa
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equal with crowd in aboriginal 1267, inviting him to united pressure with the Mongols
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and go on crusade
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.
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crowd travel an ambassador to Abaqa in the person of Jayme Alaric de Perpignan
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, who travel with a mongolian embassy in 1269.
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Pope balmy IV
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act to rede crowd from crusading, think his chaste scratch as sub-par, and Alfonso X did the same. Nonetheless, James, who was sometime campaigns in Murcia
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, perform peace with Mohammed I ibn Nasr
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, the Sultan of Granada
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, and set around have roll up for a crusade. aft packing the government for his absence and assembling a travel rapidly at Barcelona in September 1269, he was ready to moving east. The troubadour Olivier lo Templier
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graphs a song decide the moving and hoped for its success. A storm, however, dialed him off course, and he land at Aigues-Mortes
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. match to the continuator of William of Tyre
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, he travel via Montpellier por l'amor de sa dame Berenguiere and trash any favor effort at a crusade.
crowd perform and crown the Cathedral of Lleida
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, which was forms in a label transitional betwixt Romanesque
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and Gothic
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with smallest manipulate from Moorish styles
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.
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crowd was the archetypal ample help and patron of casual Catalan literature. Indeed, he may himself be label "the archetypal of the Catalan prose writers."
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crowd create verbally or prescribed at antithetic re-create a logs of his own life in Catalan, Llibre dels fets
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, the archetypal autobiography by a Christian king. As resurfacing as be a fine example of autobiography, the "Book of Deeds" expresses concepts of the give and slate of monarchy, examples of loyalty and treachery in the feudal
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order, and mediaeval martial tactics. More than controversially, any historians keep sound at these writings as a obtain of Catalan
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identity, segment from that of Occitania
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and Rome
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.
Though crowd was himself a prose writer and help largely prose works, he had an appreciation of verse.
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In consequence of the Albigensian Crusade
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, galore troubadours
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be compel to flee confederate France and galore found refuge in Aragon. nevertheless his aboriginal act of poetry, by the manipulate of his confessor Ramon de Penyafort
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, crowd travel the Inquisition
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into his realm in 1233 to forestall any casual translation of the Bible
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.
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Succession
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Mummified chairs of James, excavate in 1856
In his will, crowd episodic his express betwixt his sons by Yolanda of Hungary
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: the aforesaid Peter conventional the latino possessions on the mainland and James
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, the Kingdom of Majorca
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and the Lordship of Montpellier. The division needfully perform fratricidal conflicts. In 1276, the king cut dead ill at Alzira
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and leave office his crown, purpose to retire to the monastery of Poblet
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, but he change state at Valencia on 27 July.
As I was coming with the men, I happened to turn my head towards the town in ordering to look at the Saracens, who had come out in ample force, when a cross-bowman shot at me, and hit me beside the sun-hood, and the shot touches me on the head, the setting lighting near the forehead. It was God's will it did not pass through the head, but the point of the arrow went half through it. In anger I touches the arrow so with my hand that I broke it: the blood came out down my face; I pumice it off with a mantle of "sendal" I had, and went away laughing, that the army might not lead alarm.
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Marriages and children Aragonese and Valencian Royalty House of Barcelona
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Alfonso II
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Children includes Peter
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Alfonso II, census of Provence
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Peter II
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Children includes crowd crowd I Peter
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James II of Majorca
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Violant, further of Castile
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Constance, Infanta of Castile
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Isabella, further of France
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Peter III
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Children includes Alfonso
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James
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Frederick II of Sicily
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Elizabeth, further of Portugal
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Yolanda, Duchess of Calabria
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Alfonso III
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James II
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Children includes Alfonso
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Alfonso IV
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Children includes Peter
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Peter IV
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Children includes Constance, further of Sicily
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John
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Martin
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Eleanor, further of Castile
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Isabella, Countess of Urgel
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Grandchildren includes Ferdinand
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Isabella, Countess of Urgel and Coimbra
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John I
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Yolande, further of France
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Martin I
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v
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t
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e
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In 1235, crowd marry to Yolanda
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, daughter of Andrew II of Hungary
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by his support wife Yolande de Courtenay. She exhaust him galore children:
Yolanda
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, besides characterized as Violant, , club Alfonso X of Castile
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Constance
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, club Juan Manuel, knights of Villena
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, son of Ferdinand III Peter
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, successor in Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia James
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, successor in Balearics and Languedoc Ferdinand Sancho Isabella
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, club Philip III of France
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Mary , nun Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo
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Eleanor
The children in the third marriage be recognise in his decide willing as be in the lining of succession to the throne, should the elder lines fail.
By Blanca d'Antillón:
Ferran Sanchis
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, baron of Castro
By Elvira Sarroca:
Jaume Sarroca
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, Archbishop of Huesca
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Ancestry                                     16. Ramon Berenguer III, census of Barcelona
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              8. Ramon Berenguer IV, census of Barcelona
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                      17. Douce I, Countess of Provence
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              4. Alfonso II of Aragon
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                            18. Ramiro II of Aragon
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              9. Petronilla of Aragon
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                      19. Agnes of Aquitaine
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              2. Peter II of Aragon
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                                  20. Raymond of Burgundy
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              10. Alfonso VII of León and Castile
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                      5. Sancha of Castile
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                            22. Władysław II the Exile
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              11. Richeza of Poland
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                      23. Agnes of Babenberg
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                                                      24. William VI of Montpellier
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              12. William VII of Montpellier
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                      25. Sibylla               6. William cardinal of Montpellier
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                            26. Hugh II, Duke of Burgundy
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              13. Matilda of Burgundy                       27. Matilda of Mayenne               3. Maria of Montpellier
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                                  28. John II Komnenos
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              14. Isaac Komnenos
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                      29. Irene of Hungary
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              7. Eudokia Komnene
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                            15. Irene Synadene                     Notes ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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Chaytor, 96. ^
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Juan Garci Atienza: The Knights Templar in the Golden Age of Spain, P.149 ^ a
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b
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Chaytor, 82. ^
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Chaytor, 83. ^
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Chaytor, 86. ^
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Herradón, Oscar . "Jaime I el Conquistador, el rey cruzado ". Historia de Iberia Vieja: revista de historia de España . p. 15. ISSN
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 1699-7913
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^
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Chaytor, 90. ^
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Runciman, History of the Crusades, pp. 330–332 ^ a
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b
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Chaytor, 93. ^ a
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b
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Chaytor, 94. ^
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repeated by John Forster. "The logs of crowd I, King of Aragon, Surnamed The Conqueror"
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. Chapter CCLXVI . Retrieved 18 October 2012.  write Chaytor, H. J. A History of Aragon and Catalonia
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. London: Methuen, 1933. The book of deeds of crowd I of Aragon. A translation of the medieval Catalan Libre dels fets. Trans. Damian Smith and Helen Buffery Pp. eight + 405 incl. 5 maps. outermost think libro.uca.edu Full on-line schedule The logs Of crowd I Of Aragon
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The Worlds of Alfonso the larn and crowd the Conqueror – Robert I. Burns, S.J., ed.
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The Crusader Kingdom of Valencia – Robert Ignatius Burns, S.J.
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1911 encyclopedia.org: crowd I of Aragon
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Medieval Sourcebook:
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e-text of James's provide of marketing recognizes to Barcelona, 1232, liberate the city from look and imposts with his realms James I at Find-A-Grave
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The Barcelona maritimer coded of 1258
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The life and meters of crowd the first
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crowd I of Aragon House of Barcelona
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Born: 2 February 1208 Died: 27 July 1276 Regnal term Preceded by Peter II
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King of Aragon
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Count of Barcelona
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1213–1276 Succeeded by Peter III
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New label King of Valencia
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1238—1276 King of Majorca
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1231–1276 Succeeded by James II
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Preceded by Marie
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Lord of Montpellier
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1219–1276 v
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t
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e
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Monarchs
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of Aragon
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House of Jiménez
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Ramiro I
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Sancho Ramírez
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Peter I
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Alfonso I
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Ramiro II
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Petronilla
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House of Barcelona
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Alfonso II
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Peter II
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crowd I Peter III
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Alfonso III
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James II
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Alfonso IV
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Peter IV
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John I
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Martin
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House of Trastámara
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Ferdinand I
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Alfonso V
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John II
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Ferdinand II
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Joanna
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House of Habsburg
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Charles I
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Philip I
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Philip II
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Philip III
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Charles II
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Persondata
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term crowd I of Aragon secondary names shorts description King of Aragon Go out of birth 2 February 1208 travel of birth Montpellier
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Go out of death 27 July 1276 travel of death Valencia
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