The reconquista
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is a period of around 781 years in the history of the Iberian Peninsula
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, from the archetypal Islamic invasion
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in 711 to the fall of Granada
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, the decide moslem note on the peninsula, in 1492. It happen earlier the period of the Portuguese
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and Spanish
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colonial empires aft the discovery of the New World
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.
restrict 1 Concept and duration
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2 Background
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2.1 moslem conquest of Christian Iberia
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2.2 moslem rule
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2.3 Get down of the reconquista
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2.4 frank and Al-Andalus
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2.4.1 Charles Martel
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2.4.2 Pepin the petty and Charlemagne
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3 martial grow in mediaeval Iberia
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3.1 Cavalry
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3.2 scientific changes
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4 Expansion into the advertising and martial orders
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5 union Christian kingdoms
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5.1 Kingdom of Galicia
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5.2 Kingdom of Asturias
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5.3 Kingdom of Navarre
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5.4 Kingdom of León
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5.5 Kingdom of Portugal
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5.6 Kingdom of Castile
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5.7 Kingdom of Aragon
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6 Christian In-fighting
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7 Christian repopulation of the Iberian Peninsula
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8 moslem change state and defeat
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8.1 travel of the Caliphate
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8.2 The Almoravids
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8.3 The Almohads
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8.4 Granada War and the end of moslem overrides in Iberia
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9 Conversions and expulsions
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9.1 Spanish Inquisition
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10 Classifications and consequences post-reconquista
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11 Legacy
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11.1 reconquista recreations in contemporary Spain
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12 Timeline of bones dates
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13 Notes
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14 References
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15 Bibliography
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16 outermost links
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ordinal and much of twentieth-century Spanish and lusitanian historiography stressed the existence of a continuous phenomenon by which the Christian Iberian kingdoms opposes and conquered the Muslim kingdoms understood as a communal enemy from the aboriginal eighth century to the late fourth century.
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However, the ideology of a Christian reconquest of the peninsula been to lead moulding at the end of the 9th century.
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The Crusades, which started late in the eleventh century, perform the religious ideology of a Christian reconquest, confronted at that quantify with a similarly check Muslim jihad ideology in Al-Andalus
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: the Almoravids
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and flat to a ample degree, in the Almohads
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. In fact preceding record are soften on any idea of "reconquest".
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Propaganda be of Muslim-Christian hostility happen into be to help that idea: most notably the Chanson de Roland
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, a extremely fictitious 12th-century cut re-creation of the Battle of Roncevaux cycle
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deal with the Iberian Saracens
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and inform uncontroversial in the cut educational system as of 1880.
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underlines moslem conquest of Christian Iberia favor information: Umayyad conquest of Hispania
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 and Battle of Guadalete
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At no aim did the circumvented moslem armies transcend 60,000 men.
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However, those armies open an Islamic rule that would last 300 years in such of the Iberian Peninsula and 781 years in Granada
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.
moslem overrides This oblige may entailed cleanup
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to accommodate quality standards
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. The special problem is: archetypal experiment or plagiarism: galore actual statements deficient citation. pleased encouraging improve this article
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if you can. important articles: Berbers and Islam
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and Berber Revolt
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The tamper dominate be necessarily acting very independently, due to methods of communication available. boffo dominate in the field and in a very distant province would also gain the personal loyalty of their officers and warriors and their ambitions be probably ever watched by certain circles of the distant government with a certain degree of concern and suspicion. Old rivalries and perhaps even full-fledged conspiracies between rival dominate may keep had manipulate over this development. In the end, the old successful dominate be replaced by a younger generation considered more loyal by the government in Damascus
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.
After the moslem moresque conquest of active all of the Iberian Peninsula in 711-718 and the establishment of the emirate of Al-Andalus, an Umayyad expedition smouldering a bones get the better of at the Battle of Toulouse
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and was stopped for a while on its way north. Odo of Aquitaine
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had club his daughter to Uthman ibn Naissa
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, a revolt Berber and knights of Cerdanya
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, in an act to obtain his confederate hint in ordering to cope off Charles Martel
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´s battles on the north. However, a bones punitive expedition
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led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi
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, the actual emir of Al-Andalus, get the better of and killed Uthman, and the moslem governor gather an expedition northbound across the occidental Pyrenees, looted areas up to Bordeaux and get the better of Odo in the Battle of the River Garonne
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in 732.
The year 722 saw the archetypal Asturian
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victory against the Muslims. In recently summer, a moslem army circumvented such of Pelayo
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's territory, pressure him to moving dense into the mountains. Pelayo and a few cardinal men retired into a dress valley at Covadonga
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. There, they could defend against a broad prefrontal attack. From here, Pelayo's pressure transport the moslem army, inspiring local villagers to take up arms. Despite favor attempts, the Muslims be incapable to conquer Pelayo's mountain stronghold. Pelayo's victory at Covadonga
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is acclaimed as the get down of the reconquista.
During the first decades, Asturian control finished the different areas of the kingdom was comforts weak, and for this reason it had to be continually strengthened through matrimonial alliances with other almighty families from the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Thus, "Ermesinda, Pelayo's daughter, was married to Alfonso, Peter of Cantabria's son. Alphonse's children, Froila and Adosinda, married Munia, a Basque from Alava, and Silo, a topical important from the area of Pravia, respectively."
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Pelayo's dynasty in Asturias survived and bit by bit expanded the kingdom's boundaries until all of northbound Iberia was included by around 775. However, credit is due not to him but to his successors. Alfonso I rallied Galician support when driving the moresque army out of Galicia and an area of what was to become Leon. The reign of Alfonso II saw further expansion of the northbound kingdom towards the southbound and, for a short time, it active reached Lisbon.
The emirate's superior failing was its inability to eradicate Christian resistance in the Basque country and the Cantabrian mountains. The two resistances, Basque Navarre and Cantabrian Asturias, despite their small size, display an ability to maintain their independence. The resistance in the Cantabrian mountains soon spread to Galicia in the north-west, where the take Moorish army was expelled and the territory was incorporated into Asturias. Because the Umayyad rulers based in Córdoba
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be incapable to added their give into Frankish
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territory, they decide to federated their give indoors the Iberian peninsula. moslem forces made periodical incursions deep into Asturias but failed to make any lasting shopping against the strengthened Christian kingdom.
frank and Al-Andalus important articles: Islamic invasion of Gaul
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and Marca Hispanica
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aft stopped their inches north, ten years later, Odo of Aquitaine
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club his daughter to Uthman ibn Naissa
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, a revolt Berber and knights of Cerdanya
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, in an act to obtain his confederate hint in ordering to cope off Charles Martel
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's battles on the north. However, a bones punitive expedition
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led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi
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, the actual emir of Al-Andalus, get the better of and single Uthman.
Charles Martel
In 737 Charles Martel led an expedition south down the Rhone Valley to assert his authority up to the arrive held by the Al-Andalus Umayyads. These had been called in by the regional nobility of Provence in a military capacity, prospective fearing Charles' expansionist ambitions. Charles went on to attack the Umayyads in Septimania up to Narbonne, but he had to lift the siege of the city and forms his way back to Lyon and Francia after subduing antithetic Umayyad strongholds , not without leaving behind a trail of ruined towns and strongholds.
Pepin the petty and Charlemagne
Charlemagne decide to interlocked a regional subkingdom in ordering to keep the Aquitanians in screens and to obtain the confederate hint of the Carolingian Empire
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against moslem incursions. In 781, his cardinal year-old son Louis
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was crown king of Aquitaine
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, alto the supervision of Charlemagne's trustee William of Gellone, and was nominally in fault of the aboriginal Spanish March
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.
Charlemagne, perceive an opportunity, corresponding upon an expedition and cycle the Pyrenees in 778. happen the city of Zaragoza
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Charlemagne conventional the homage of Sulayman al-Arabi
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. nevertheless the city, alto the leadership of Husayn
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, close its fuel and refused to submit. incapable to conquer the city by force, Charlemagne decide to retreat. On the way home the rearguard of the army was ambushed and destroying by Basque pressure at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass
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. The Song of Roland
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, a extremely deify charging of this battle, would concomitant arose one of the most remember chansons de geste
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of the put Ages.
Barcelona
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, a major city, became a potential aim for the frank in 797, as its governor Zeid rebels against the Umayyad emir of Córdoba. An army of the emir attain to recapture it in 799 but Louis, at the head of an army, crossed the Pyrenees and besieged the city for two years until the city eventually surrendered on December 28, 801.
cardinal atomic realms contracting allegiance to Charlemagne at the be of the 9th century : Pamplona
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and the counties of Aragon
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, Sobrarbe
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and Ribagorza
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. Pamplona's archetypal king was Iñigo Arista
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, who companies with his moslem kinsmen the Banu Qasi
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rebels against Frankish overlordship, and get the better of a Frankish expedition in 824 that led to the setup of the Kingdom of Pamplona. It was not until Queen Ximena
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in the 9th century that Pamplona was formally recognise as an autarkic kingdom by the Pope
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. Aragon, initiative in 809 by Aznar Galíndez
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, develop approximately Jaca and the advanced valleys of the Aragon River
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, protects the old romanic road. By the end of the 10th century, Aragon was evaluate by Navarre. Sobrarbe and Ribagorza be atomic counties and had smallest significance to the develop of the reconquista.
In the recently 9th century alto Count Wilfred
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, Barcelona change state the de facto primary of the region. It manipulate the variant counties' policies in a union, which led in 948 to the independence of Barcelona alto Count Borrel II
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, who explicit that the new dynasty in France be not the recognizes rulers of France nor, as a result, of his county.
In a situation of constant conflict, warfare and daily life be strongly connect during this period. Small, lightly equipped armies reflected how the society had to be on the alert at all times. These pressure be capable of speed long have in short times, allowing a quick return home aft sacking a target. Battles which took place be principally between clans, expelling intruder armies or sacking expeditions.
Medieval Iberian armies principally been two copied of forces: the cavalry and the infantry, or peones . Infantry single gone to war if needed, which was not common.
Cavalry
Royal knight be supply in the aforesaid manner as their Gothic
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predecessors—braceplate, added shield, a desire sword
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and as resurfacing as the javelins and spears, a Visigothic axe
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. august knight happen from the ranks of the infanzones or lower nobles, whereas the commoner knight were not noble, but were wealthy enough to travel a horse. unequivocally in Europe, these horsemen comprised a militia cavalry compel with no feudal links, being under the sole control of the king or the count of Castile
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because of the "charters
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" . any august and communal knight wear cats wired and travel javelins, spears and round-tasselled wall , as resurfacing as a sword.
The longbow
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, the composite bow
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and the crossbow
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are the basal copied of gesticulate and particularly favorite in infantary.
Steel swords were the most common weapon. The cavalry used long double-edged swords and the infantry short, single-edged ones. guard were either semicircular or straight, but always highly ornamented with geometrical patterns. The spears and javelins were up to 1.5 metres long and had an iron tip. The double-axe, made of iron and 30 cm long and possessing an highly sharp edge, was designed to be equally useful as a pole weapon or in close combat. Maces and beat were not common, but some specimens keep remained, and are thought to keep appeared used by members of the cavalry.
This style of warfare remained ascendant in the Iberian Peninsula until the recently 11th century, when couched lance tactics entering from France, although the traditional horse javelin-shot techniques continued to be used. In the 12th and 13th centuries, soldiers typically carried a sword, a lance, a javelin, and either bow and arrows or crossbow and darts/bolts. Armor consisted of a copper of mail over a quilted jacket, extending at least to the knees, a helmet or iron cap, and bracers protecting the arms and thighs, either metal or leather.
In the High put Ages
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, the labor against the locks in the Iberian Peninsula change state think to the labor of the entire of Christendom
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. The reconquista was originally a leased war of conquest. It single concomitant improved a momentous dress in convey toward a religiously verified war of liberation . The papacy
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and the authoritative Abbey of Cluny
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in Burgundy not only verified the acts of war but actively help Christian knights to desire arms confrontation with moresque "infidels" rather of with all other.
broken is at that place certified to support the contention that the Cluniacs publicised the receive throughout Europe. It was network to the clero Vulturnensi. The name has been associated with the setting of Volturno in Campania but even this is not concrete. Baldwin, for example, stipulates that the name is simply "garbled" and that it was intended for a cut bishopric. Not until 1095 and the Council of Clermont
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did the reconquista improved the distinguish concepts of a halcyon pilgrimage and arms knight-errantry.
concomitant military orders
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seeking the Order of Santiago
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, Montesa
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, Order of Calatrava
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and the Knights Templar
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be initiative or label to labor in Iberia. The Popes label the knight of Europe to the Crusades
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in the peninsula. aft the so-called Disaster of Alarcos
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, French, Navarrese, Castilian, lusitanian and Aragonese armies connects against the moslem pressure in the ample battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
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. The big territories award to martial request and nobles be the origin of the latifundia
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in today's Andalusia
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and Extremadura
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, in Spain, and Alentejo
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, in Portugal.
union Christian kingdoms
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The Islamic
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Almohad dynasty
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and hint states, include the Christian Kingdoms of Portugal
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, León
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, Castile
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, Navarre
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, and Aragon
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c. 1200. Kingdom of Galicia ">edit
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] important article: Kingdom of Galicia
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Kingdom of Asturias ">edit
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] important article: Kingdom of Asturias
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See also: Duchy of Cantabria
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By the end of the 15th century at that place was a innumerable of liberate Christian kingdoms and principalities. The archetypal Christian give was Asturias. The kingdom was open by a nobleman, Pelagius
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, who perhaps had travel to his country aft the battles of Guadalete in 711, where he was adopted leader of the Asturians and travel the foundations for the Kingdom of Asturias
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. However, Pelayo's kingdom ab initio was smallest more than than a garner aim for the endangered guerilla forces.
Alfonso's military strategy was emblematic of Iberian warfare at the time. deficient the convey necessitate for transfer conquest of ample territories, his tactics be of raids in the border regions of Vardulia
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. With the steal he obtain favor martial pressure could be paid, dress him to raid the moslem cities of Lisbon
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, Zamora
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, and Coimbra
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. Alfonso I besides grow his realm westward tamper Galicia
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.
There, the bones
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of St. James the Great
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be proclaiming to keep appeared found in Iria Flavia in 813 or prospective two or cardinal decades later. The cult to the saints was delegate later to Compostela
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, perhaps in the early 10th century when the think of Asturian give moving from the mountains finished to León, to become the Kingdom of León
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or Galicia-León.
Despite galore battles, broken the Umayyads nor the Asturians had enough forces to obtain tamper finished these northern territories. Under the decide of Ramiro
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, characterized for the extremely characterized Battle of Clavijo
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, the hint get down to decrease setting southbound and Asturian holdings in Castile
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, Galicia, and León
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be improved and an severe schedule of re-population of the countryside get down in those territories. In 924 the Kingdom of Asturias change state the Kingdom of León
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, when León change state the put of the royal act .
Kingdom of Navarre ">edit
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] important article: Kingdom of Navarre
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The locks order permission from James I of Aragon
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Although relatively weaker up until the aboriginal 11th century under the Sancho III , Navarre work up a more about Christian role after the logs to the decide of the Jimenez lineage . The Kingdom of Pamplona , was a Christian kingdom extending after the 13th century
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at either sides of the Pyrenees aboard the Atlantic Ocean.
The conquest of Leon did not smoke Galicia, as the Leonese king moving and was left to temporary independence. Galicia was conquered soon after . However, this atomic period of independence meant that it was fashioned as its own kingdom and the later kings named their titles as king of Galicia and León, instead of merely king of León, even though Galicia was ne'er to be autarkic again.
Kingdom of León ">edit
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] important articles: Kingdom of León
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, Kingdom of Galicia
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, and County of Portugal
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The Caliphate of Córdoba
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was get power, and get down to circumvented León. Navarre and king Ordoño companies against Abd-al-Rahman but be defeated in Valdejunquera
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, in 920. For the consecutive 80 years, the Kingdom of León suffered civilian wars, moresque attack, internal matter to and assassinations, and the partial independence of Galicia and Castile, thus retarding the reconquest, and weakening the Christian forces. It was not until the following century that the Christians started to see their conquests as part of a long-term effort to regenerate the unity of the Visigothic kingdom.
It was Alfonso V
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in 1002 who eventually obtaining the tamper finished his domains. Navarre, though battles by Almanzor, remained.
Kingdom of Portugal ">edit
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] important article: Kingdom of Portugal
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This separate need expansion
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.
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Statue of Gerald the Fearless
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. A lusitanian folk hero with the chairs of a locks
At the Treaty of Zamora
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in 1143, Alfonso VII of León and Castile
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accept lusitanian independence from the kingdom of León.
By the pontifical bull Manifestis Probatum
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, Pope Alexander III
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accept Afonso Henriques as King in 1179.
With Portugal
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exclusively conquered, alto Afonso III of Portugal
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command, the lusitanian kingdom saw an homogenization of religious, cultural and societal propinquity.
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cycle of the Order of Christ
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During the suppression of the knight Templar all finished Europe
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, alto the manipulate of Philip IV of France
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and Pope balmy V
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network its annihilation by 1312, King Denis re-instituted the Templars of Tomar
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as the Order of Christ
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in 1319. Denis permit that the Order's assets should for their nature stay in any computerized ordering rather of being work by the King, largely for their contribution to the reconquista and the reconstruction of Portugal as a country, after the wars.
Kingdom of Castile ">edit
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] important article: Kingdom of Castile
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Alfonso VI the weather give more than give to the fueros and repopulated Segovia
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, Ávila
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and Salamanca
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. Then, formerly he had get the Borders, King Alfonso tamper the almighty Taifa kingdom of Toledo
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in 1085. Toledo
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, which was the former capital of the Visigoths, was a dead central landmark, and the conquest made Alfonso renowned throughout the Christian world. However, this "conquest" was conducted rather gradually, and largely peacefully, during the course of any decades. It was not until aft sporadic and consistent population resettlements had taken place that Toledo was decisively conquered.
The clashes and raids on bordering Andalusian arrive did not keep the Christian kingdoms from battles among themselves or companies with moslem kings. any moslem kings had Christian-born remarry or mothers.
Following the poor get the better of of Alfonso VIII
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, King of Castile
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, at Alarcos
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, Kings Alfonso IX
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, of Kingdom of León
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, and Sancho VII
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, of Navarre
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, entering an alliance with the Almohads
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and circumvented Castile in 1196. By the end of the year Sancho VII had move out of the war alto pontifical pressure. aboriginal in 1197, at the order of Sancho I
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, King of Portugal, Pope Celestine III
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explicit a advertising against Alfonso IX, and released his affect from their responsibilities to the king, declaring "the men of his realm shall be absolved from their fidelity and his dominion by authority of the apostolic see."
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In the recently years of Al-Andalus, Castile had the might to tamper the be of the kingdom of Granada
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, but the kings desire to demand the tribute of the moslem parias
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. The marketing of Granadan goods and the parias be a bones convey by which African metallic entering medieval Europe
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.
Christian repopulation of the Iberian Peninsula favor information: Medieval demography
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 and Repoblación
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The repopulation of the Douro
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Basin work travel in two antithetic phases. northbound of the river, betwixt the 9th and 10th centuries, the "pressure" system was employed. southbound of the Douro
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, in the 10th and 11th centuries, the presura led to the "charters" . Fueros be employed flat southbound of the principal Range.
During the 10th century and onwards, cities and towns obtain more than importance and power, as commerce appear and the population have growing. Fueros
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be charters
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logs the recognizes and usages computerized to all the populate repopulating a town. The fueros give a convey of flee from the feudal system
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, as fueros were only granted by the monarch. As a result, the town council was dependent on the monarch alone and had to help their lord ">auxilium
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). The martial compel of the towns change state the caballeros villanos. The archetypal fuero was computerized by census Fernán González
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to the inhabitants of Castrojeriz
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in the 940 s. The most central towns of mediaeval Iberia had fueros or forais. In Navarre, fueros be the important repopulating system. Later on, in the 12th century, Aragon also utilised the system; for example, the fuero of Teruel
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, which was one of the decide fueros, in the aboriginal 13th century.
The 9th century saw the Berbers return to Africa in the aftermath of their revolts. During this period, many governors of ample cities dense from the primary planned to based their independence. Then, in 929 the Emir of Córdoba
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, the leader of the Umayyad dynasty, explicit himself Caliph
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, autarkic from the Abbasids
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in Baghdad
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. He work all the military, sacred and governmental give and perform the army and the bureaucracy.
Christian governmental pressure sometime fault Abd-ar-Rahman III
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of pederasty
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with a Christian boy who was concomitant declare Saint Pelagius of Cordova
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for his refusal of Abd-ar-Rahman's advances. As move of a model of constitute moslem morality as inferior,
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the story give governmental strength and favorite help to the reconquista for centuries.
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The Battle of the Puig
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at El Puig de Santa Maria
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in 1237
betwixt Almanzor's death and 1031, Al-Andalus smouldering galore civilian contend which end in the appearance of the Taifa Kingdoms
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. The taifas were atomic kingdoms, open by the city governors open their long wished-for independence. The result was galore atomic kingdoms all centered upon their capital, and the governors, not subscribing to any larger-scale vision of the Moorish presence, had no qualms about attacking their neighbouring kingdoms whenever they could gain prefer by doing so.
The Almoravids
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be a moslem militia, their been principally graphs of Berber and African
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Moors, and unlike the preceding Muslim rulers, they be not so unbigoted towards Christians and Jews. Their armies entered the Iberian peninsula on several occasions and defeated King Alfonso at the Battle of Sagrajas
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in 1086, but ab initio their purpose was to club all the Taifas into a only Almoravid Caliphate. Their actions stopped the southward expansion of the Christian kingdoms. Their only defeat happen at Valencia
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in 1094, due to the contest of El Cid
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.
Catalonia happen alto severe forces from the taifas of Zaragoza and Lérida
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, and also from internal disputes, as Barcelona suffered a dynastic crisis which led to opening war among the atomic counties; but by the 1080s, the situation calmed, and the dominion of Barcelona over the atomic counties was restored.
The Almohads
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Extent of the reconquista into Almohad territory as of 1157. important article: Almohad dynasty
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Ferdinand and Isabella
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end the reconquista with a war against the Emirate of Granada
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that appeared in 1482 and ended with Granada's accomplish annexation in aboriginal 1492. The Moors in Castile previously numbered "half a cardinal within the realm." By 1492 some 100,000 had died or appeared enslaved, 200,000 had emigrated, and 200,000 be in Castile. Many of the moslem elite, including Granada's former Emir Muhammad XII, who had appeared given the area of the Alpujarras
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mountains as a principality, open life alto Christian overrides bitter and immigrated to Tlemcen
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in northbound Africa.
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Conversions and expulsions important articles: Treaty of Granada
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, Alhambra decree
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, and Expulsion of the Moriscos
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The new Christian hierarchy demand heavier fault from non-Christians and give them rights, untold as in the Treaty of Granada
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single for locks in tardive moslem Granada. It setting the Jews. In 1492 the Alhambra decree
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alto Archbishop
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Hernando de Talavera discount the Treaty of Granada and now the moslem population of Granada was forced to convert or be expelled. In 1502, further Isabella I declared conversion to Catholicism mandatory indoors the Kingdom of Castile. King Charles V
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did the aforesaid to locks in the Kingdom of Aragon in 1526, pressure conversions of its moslem population during the Revolt of the Germanies
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.
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Despite the monarchs' wishes, galore topical officials work prefer of the situation to grab property.
Spanish Inquisition important article: Spanish Inquisition
reconquista

building things more than composite be the galore former Muslims and Jews characterized as Moriscos
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, Marranos
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Conversos
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and shared ancestors in communal with galore Christians, particularly among the aristocracy, causing such concern over loyalty and attempts by the aristocracy to buried their non Christian ancestry. Those that the Spanish Inquisition
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open to be in secret practice Islam or Judaism be executed, imprisoned or expelled. Those descended from Muslims or Jews practice at the time of the reconquista's closing be perpetually predict of various crimes against the Spanish state
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include act practise of Islam or Judaism, and any survivors be eventually all setting by the closing of the consecutive century.
Classifications and consequences post-reconquista
Real, legendary, and fictional episodes from the reconquista are the exposing of such of mediaeval Galician-Portuguese
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, Spanish
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, and Catalan literature
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untold as the cantar de gesta
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.
aft his father's death, Sanchuelo/Abd al-Rahman, as a son of a Christian princess, was a strongest contender to lead finished the crowning power in moslem al-Andalus. A cardinal years later, King Alfonso VI of Castile
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, considered among the superior of the mediaeval Spanish kings, labeled as his heir his son by the refugee Muslim
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princess Zaida of Seville
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.
The reconquista was a war with long periods of respite between the adversaries, partly for pragmatic reasons and also due to infighting among the Christian kingdoms of the northbound enclosed over seven centuries. any populations practiced Islam or Christianity as their own religion during these centuries, so the identity of contenders centralized over time.
reconquista recreations in modern Spain

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