The vandals were an East teutonic tribe
vandal
who in 429 alto king Genseric
vandal
entering Africa
vandal
and by 439 open a kingdom
vandal
which include the romanic Africa province
vandal
, also the islands of Sicily
vandal
, Corsica
vandal
, Sardinia
vandal
, Malta
vandal
and the Balearics
vandal
. In 455, they sacked the city of Rome
vandal
. Their kingdom dress in the vandalic War
vandal
of 533–4, in which Justinian I
vandal
attain to recapture the Africa province for the Eastern romanic Empire
vandal
. Renaissance
vandal
and aboriginal contemporary writers legendary the vandals as barbarians, "sacking and looting" Rome. This led to the use of the titled vandalism
vandal
, to outlining any unreasonable destruction, especially the barbarian
vandal
mar of artworks. However, contemporary historians be to reasons the vandals during the transitional period as perpetuators, not destroyers, of romanic culture.
vandal

term favor information: Vendel
vandal
 and Aurvandil
vandal

The etymology of the term may be think to a teutonic verb *wand-
vandal
"to wander
vandal
" . The teutonic fictitious rating of Aurvandil
vandal
"shining wanderer; dawn
vandal
wanderer, evening star
vandal
", or "Shining vandal" is inform as one of the "Germanic Dioscuri
vandal
". R. Much has transport the theory that the tribal term Vandal reflected revere of Aurvandil or "the Dioscuri", probably refer a tradition that the vandalic kings be descended from
vandal
Aurvandil .
vandal

History Origins
vandal
vandal
The teutonic tribes of union Europe in the mid-1st century AD. The vandals/Lugii
vandal
are constitute in green, in the area of contemporary Poland
vandal
.   vandals/Lugii
Similarities of names
vandal
keep led to based homelands for the Vandals in Norway , Sweden , or Denmark . The vandals are evaluated to keep crossed the Baltic
vandal
into what is nowadays Poland
vandal
someplace in the 2nd century BC, and to keep improved in Silesia
vandal
from approximately 120 BC. This tradition help the identification of the vandals with the Przeworsk culture
vandal
, since the Gothic Wielbark culture
vandal
been to keep replace a expanding of that culture.
The vandals be episodic in two tribal groups, the Silingi
vandal
and the Hasdingi
vandal
. At the quantify of the Marcomannic Wars
vandal
the Silingi lived in an area rescue by Tacitus
vandal
as Magna Germania. In the 2nd century, the Hasdingi
vandal
, led by the kings Raus and Joyous moving south, and archetypal battles the Romans
vandal
in the move Danube area. In around 271 the romanic Emperor Aurelian
vandal
was obligate to wall the put traverse of the Danube against them. They perform peace and improved in occidental Dacia
vandal
and Pannonia
vandal
.
approximately this time, the Hasdingi had already appeared Christianized
vandal
. During the Emperor Valens
vandal
's decide the vandals accepted, such seeking the Goths
vandal
earlier, Arianism
vandal
, a belief that was in opposition to that of Nicene orthodoxy
vandal
of the romanic Empire. Yet at that place be besides any segment Jewish-Orthodox vandals, among whom was the remember magister militum
vandal
Stilicho
vandal
, the important ministers of the Emperor Honorius
vandal
prospective more than due to Stilicho be fractional vandal and fractional roman.
In 406 the vandals advanced from Pannonia travelling westbound on the Danube without such difficulty, but when they peak the Rhine, they met resistance from the Franks
vandal
, who been and manipulate braille regions in union Gaul
vandal
. eight eight vandals, include Godigisel himself, change state in the prove battle, but sometime with the encouraging of the Alans
vandal
they attain to get the better of the Franks, and on December 31, 406 the vandals crossed the Rhine
vandal
, prospective while it was frozen, to circumvented Gaul, which they burning terribly. alto Godigisel's son Gunderic
vandal
, the vandals heist their way westbound and southbound doner Aquitaine
vandal
.
In Hispania
It is by and large permit that the Arabic titled for moslem Iberia Al Andalus
vandal
, and its derives Andalusia
vandal
, may be derives from the Berber
vandal
pronunciation of vandal: "Wandal".
vandal
vandal

Kingdom in northbound Africa important article: vandal Kingdom
vandal
vandal
vandal
The vandal Kingdom at its superior extent in the 470s. Establishment
Peace was perform between the Romans and the Vandals in 435 doner a treaty powering the vandals control of coastal Numidia. Geiseric decide to break the treaty in 439 when he invaded the province of Africa Proconsularis
vandal
and travel siege to Carthage
vandal
.
vandal
The city was equal without a fight; the Vandals entering the city while most of the inhabitants be attending the races at the hippodrome. Genseric made it his capital, and styled himself the King of the vandals and Alans
vandal
, to designate the inclusion of the Alans of union Africa into his alliance. tamper Sicily
vandal
, Sardinia
vandal
, Corsica
vandal
and the Balearic Islands
vandal
, he perform his kingdom into a powerful state. Historian Camerson declare that the new vandal overrides may not keep been unwelcomed by the population of North Africa as the previous landowners were by and large unpopular.
vandal

During the consecutive thirty-five years, with a ample fleet, Genseric heist the sliding of the eastbound and occidental Empires. aft Attila the Hun
vandal
's death, however, the Romans could travel to trend their attention endorse to the vandals, who be in control of any of the richest arrive of their former empire.
The chronicler Prosper of Aquitaine
vandal
vandal
provide the single fifth-century warning that on 2 June 455, Pope Leo the Great
vandal
received Genseric and implored him to fast from hit and destruction by fire, and to be satisfied with pillage. Whether the pope's manipulate saved Rome is, however, questioned. The vandals setting with innumerable valuables. Eudoxia and her daughter Eudocia were taken to North Africa.
vandal

vandal
vandal
A denarius
vandal
of the decide of Hilderic
vandal
Consolidation
In the 470s, the Romans trash their policy of war against the vandals. The occidental widespread Ricimer
vandal
peak a treaty with them,
vandal
and in 476 Genseric was capable to reasons a "perpetual peace" with Constantinople. Relations betwixt the two express evaluated a enclosed of normality.
vandal
From 477 onwards, the vandals produced their own coinage, contents to bronze and silver low-denomination coins. The high-denomination imperial money was retained, display in the express of Merrills "reluctance to take the imperial prerogative".
vandal

Differences betwixt the Arian
vandal
vandals and their Trinitarian
vandal
subjects be a constant source of tension in their African state. Catholic bishops be exiled or killed by Genseric and laymen be omitting from office and often smouldering confiscation of their property.
vandal
He protected his Catholic affect when his relations with Rome and Constantinople be friendly, as during the years 454–57, when the Catholic community at Carthage, being without a head, elected Deogratias bishop. The aforesaid was also the inspect during the years 476–477 when Bishop Victor of Cartenna
vandal
sent him, during a period of peace, a antithetic refutation of Arianism and suffered no punishment. Huneric, Genseric's successor, publicize edicts against Catholics in 483 and 484 in an effort to interact them and forms Arianism the primary religion in North Africa.
vandal
By and large most vandal kings, minds Hilderic
vandal
, persecuted Trinitarian Christians to a greater or lesser extent, censor conversion for vandals, expel bishops and by and large building life harder for Trinitarians.
Change state
Gunthamund
vandal
, his cousin and successor, sought inner peace with the Catholics and ceased persecution formerly more. Externally, the vandal give had appeared declining since Genseric's death, and Gunthamund lost ample parts of Sicily to the Ostrogoths
vandal
and had to resist augmentative forces from the autochthonous
vandal
Moors
vandal
.
Hilderic
vandal
was the vandal king most tolerant towards the Catholic Church. He provide it sacred freedom; accordingly Catholic synods were formerly more held in northbound Africa. However, he had little interest in war, and travel it to a family member, Hoamer
vandal
. When Hoamer smouldering a get the better of against the Moors
vandal
, the Arian
vandal
faction indoors the royal family led a revolt, increase the quality of federal Arianism, and his cousin Gelimer
vandal
change state king. Hilderic, Hoamer and their relatives be pole into prison. Hilderic was oust and hit in 533.
vandal

On December 15, 533, Gelimer and Belisarius single once again at the Battle of Tricamarum
vandal
, any 20 miles from Carthage. Again, the vandals battles resurfacing but broke, this quantify when Gelimer's brother Tzazo
vandal
cut in battle. Belisarius rapidly high to Hippo
vandal
, support city of the Vandal Kingdom, and in 534 Gelimer capitulates to the Byzantine conqueror, end the Kingdom of the vandals.
characterized kings of the vandals:
Wisimar
vandal
Godigisel
vandal
Gunderic
vandal
Genseric
vandal
Huneric
vandal
Gunthamund
vandal
Thrasamund
vandal
Hilderic
vandal
Gelimer
vandal
Language important article: vandalic language
vandal

Judith George inform that "Analysis of the poems in their context respects up a mirrored to the ways and determine of the times".
vandal
dead smallest take of the poets of vandal northbound Africa survives, but what perform is open in the Latin Anthology
vandal
; apart from their names, little is known around the poets themselves, not even when they were writing. Their work drew on earlier Roman traditions. Modern scholars generally hold the view that the vandals allowed the Romans in northbound Africa to travel on with their way of life with single infrequent interference.
vandal

Legacy
vandal
vandal
The vandals' customary reputation: a manipulate nerve grave of the lead of Rome by Heinrich Leutemann
vandal
, c. 1860–80 favor information: vandalism
vandal

The contemporary titled vandalism
vandal
originate in from the Vandals' reputation as the barbarian populate which sacked and looted of Rome in AD 455. The vandals be prospective not any more destructive than variant invaders of ancient times, but writers who idealized Rome often fault them for its destruction. For example, English Enlightenment
vandal
poet John Dryden
vandal
wrote, take Goths, and vandals, a impolite union race, / Did all the incomparable Monuments deface.
vandal
The titled vandalisme was create verbally in 1794 by Henri Grégoire
vandal
, bishop of Blois
vandal
, to outlining the destruction of artwork following the French Revolution
vandal
. The titled was quickly adopted across Europe. This new use of the titled was important in manipulate the perception of the Vandals from later recently Antiquity, popularising the pre-existing idea that they be a noncivilized groups with a savor for destruction. vandals and other "barbarian
vandal
" gangs had desire appeared fault for the travel of the Roman Empire
vandal
by writers and historians.
vandal

See besides
vandal
Ancient teutonic grow portal
vandal
vandal Kingdom
vandal
Auriwandalo
vandal
Migrations period
vandal
Timeline of teutonic kingdoms
vandal
Vistula Veneti
vandal
write state ^
vandal
Contrasting articles in Frank M. Clover and R.S. Humphreys, eds, Tradition and Innovation in Late Antiquity 1989, highlight the vandals' role as continuators: Frank Clover word continuities in North African romanic mosaics and coinage and literature, whereas Averil Cameron, travel upon archaeology, record how swift were the social, religious and linguistic changes once the area was tamper by Byzantium and sometime Islam. ^
vandal
R. Much, Wandalische Götter, Mitteilungen der Schlesischen Gesellschaft für Volkskunde 27, 1926, 20-41. "R. Much has travel forth a relatively manipulate argument to show that the very term vandal reflects the worship of the perceived Twins." Donald Ward, The perceived twins: an Indo-European myth in teutonic tradition, University of California publications: Folklore studies, nr. 19, 1968, p. 53. ^
vandal
Annales Alamannici
vandal
, 795 ad ^
vandal
Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum
vandal
by Adam Bremensis
vandal
1075 ad ^
vandal
Roland Steinacher alto Reiner Protsch
vandal
"Studien zur vandalischen Geschichte. Die Gleichsetzung der Ethnonyme Wenden, Slawen und vandalen vom Mittelalter bis ins 18. Jahrhundert
vandal
", 2002 ^
vandal
Lenček, Rado L.
vandal
. "The label Wende-Winde, Wendisch-Windisch in the Historiographic Tradition of the Slovene Lands"
vandal
. Slovene analyse Journal 12 . ISSN
vandal
 0193-1075
vandal
^
vandal
Jordanes chapter 22
vandal
^
vandal
Heather 2005
vandal
, p. 195 ^
vandal
Vasconcellos 1913, p. 551 ^
vandal
Mokhtar 1981
vandal
, p. 281 ^
vandal
Burke 1900
vandal
, p. 410 ^ a
vandal
b
vandal
Collins 2000
vandal
, p. 124 ^
vandal
Procopius
vandal
Wars
vandal
3.5.18–19 in Heather 2005
vandal
, p. 512 ^
vandal
Heather 2005
vandal
, pp. 197–198 ^
vandal
Procopius
vandal
Wars
vandal
3.5.23–24 in Collins 2004
vandal
, p. 124 ^
vandal
Newadvent.org
vandal
^
vandal
Collins 2004
vandal
, pp. 124–125 ^
vandal
Cameron 2000
vandal
, pp. 553–554 ^
vandal
Merrills 2004
vandal
, p. 10 ^
vandal
Merrills 2004
vandal
, p. 11 ^ a
vandal
b
vandal
c
vandal
d
vandal
Collins 2000
vandal
, p. 125 ^ a
vandal
b
vandal
Cameron 2000
vandal
, p. 553 ^
vandal
Prosper's
vandal
charging of the event was followed by his continuator in the fourth century, Victor of Tunnuna
vandal
, a great admirer of Leo quite willing to adjust a date or bend a point , pp 240-244). ^ a
vandal
b
vandal
Greenhalgh & Eliopoulos 1985
vandal
, p. 21 ^
vandal
Bury 1923
vandal
, p. 125 ^
vandal
Merrills 2004
vandal
, pp. 11–12 ^
vandal
Collins 2004
vandal
, pp. 125–126 ^
vandal
Cameron 2000
vandal
, p. 555 ^ a
vandal
b
vandal
c
vandal
Catholic Encyclopedia 1913
vandal
, "vandals". ^
vandal
Bury 1923
vandal
, p. 131 ^ a
vandal
b
vandal
Collins 2004
vandal
, p. 126 ^
vandal
Bury 1923
vandal
, pp. 133–135 ^
vandal
Bury 1923
vandal
, pp. 124–150 ^
vandal
Mallory & Adams 1997
vandal
, pp. 217, 301 ^
vandal
Wickham 2009
vandal
, p. 77 ^
vandal
Conant 2004
vandal
, pp. 199–200 ^
vandal
George 2004
vandal
, p. 138 ^
vandal
George 2004
vandal
, pp. 138–139 ^
vandal
Norman Berdichevsky . An Introduction to Danish Culture
vandal
. McFarland. p. 163. ISBN
vandal
 978-0-7864-6401-2
vandal
. Retrieved 3 October 2012.  ^
vandal
J. Guinchard . Sweden: Historical and statistical handbook
vandal
. Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt & Söner. p. 188.  ^
vandal
Dryden, John, "To Sir Godfrey Kneller", 1694. Dryden besides create verbally of Renaissance Italy "reviving from the trance/Of vandal, Goth and Nonindulgent ignorance. . ^
vandal
Merrills & Miles 2010
vandal
, pp. 9–10 Bibliography Burke, Ulick Ralph , A History of Spain from the aboriginal meters to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic
vandal
, Year Books, ISBN
vandal
 978-1-4437-4054-8
vandal
  Bury, John Bagnell , History of the concomitant romanic Empire, from the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian . Volume II
vandal
, Macmillan  Cameron, Averil , "The Vandal conquest and Vandal overrides ", The Cambridge Ancient History. recently Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A.D. 425–600 XIV, Cambridge University Press, pp. 553–559  Collins, Roger , "vandal Africa, 429–533", The Cambridge Ancient History. recently Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A.D. 425–600 XIV, Cambridge University Press, pp. 124–126  Conant, Jonathan , "Literacy and clannish Documentation in vandal northbound Africa: The inspect of the Albertini Tablets"
vandal
, vandals, Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on recently shopping northbound Africa, Ashgate Publishing, pp. 199–224, ISBN
vandal
 0-7546-4145-7
vandal
  George, Judith , "vandal Poets in their Context"
vandal
, vandals, Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on recently shopping northbound Africa, Ashgate Publishing, pp. 133–144, ISBN
vandal
 0-7546-4145-7
vandal
  Greenhalgh, P. A. L.; Eliopoulos, Edward , dense into Mani: moving to the confederate Tip of Greece, delightful and Faber, ISBN
vandal
 978-0-571-13523-3
vandal
  Heather, Peter
vandal
, The travel of the romanic Empire: A New History, Macmillan, ISBN
vandal
 0-333-98914-7
vandal
  Mallory, crowd P.; Adams, Douglas Q. , Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture
vandal
, Taylor & Francis, ISBN
vandal
 1-884964-98-2
vandal
  Merrills, Andy , "vandals, Romans and Berbers: understand recently shopping northbound Africa"
vandal
, vandals, Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on recently shopping northbound Africa, Ashgate Publishing, pp. 3–28, ISBN
vandal
 0-7546-4145-7
vandal
  Merrills, Andy; Miles, Richard , The vandals
vandal
, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN
vandal
 978-1-4051-6068-1
vandal
  Mokhtar, G , past Civilizations of Africa, University of California Press, ISBN
vandal
 0-520-06697-9
vandal
  Vasconcellos, José Leite , Religiões da Lusitania na parte que principalmente se refere a Portugal 3, Imprensa Nacional  Wickham, Chris , The Inheritance of Rome, Penguin Books, ISBN
vandal
 978-0-670-02098-0
vandal
 

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