Latin Union
catalan language
 Andorra
catalan language
 Spain
catalan language

 Catalonia
catalan language
 Balearic Islands
catalan language
 Valencian Community
catalan language
recognise minority language in
 Italy
catalan language

co-official in the comune of Alghero
catalan language
in Sardinia
catalan language

Catalan
catalan language
autonym
catalan language
: català
catalan language
or
catalan language
) is a Romance language
catalan language
designate for its origins in Catalonia
catalan language
, in what is, as of 2013
catalan language
, northbound Spain
catalan language
and hint move of France
catalan language
. It is the federal and single authoritative language of Andorra
catalan language
,
catalan language
and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities
catalan language
of Catalonia
catalan language
, the Balearic Islands
catalan language
, and the Valencian Community
catalan language
. It besides has semi-official status in the city of Alghero
catalan language
on the Italian
catalan language
island of Sardinia
catalan language
. It is besides oral with no authoritative recognition in move of the Spanish liberate communities of Aragon
catalan language
and Murcia
catalan language
, and in the then cut region of Roussillon
catalan language
/Northern Catalonia
catalan language
, around corresponding to the department
catalan language
of Pyrénées-Orientales
catalan language
.
catalan language

Since the Spanish convert to democracy
catalan language
, Catalan has appeared accept as an authoritative language, language of education, and language of mass media, all of which keep dressed to its change magnitude prestige.
catalan language
At that place is no match in Europe of untold a large, bilingual
catalan language
, non-state
catalan language
speech community.
catalan language

Catalan pools galore traits with its rooms Romance languages
catalan language
.
catalan language
However, despite be largely price in the Iberian Peninsula
catalan language
, Catalan show ample differences with Ibero-Romance
catalan language
in label of vocabulary
catalan language
, pronunciation
catalan language
, and grammar than it perform with Gallo-Romance
catalan language
.
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language
These similarities are most worth with Occitan.
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language

restrict 1 Etymology and pronunciation
catalan language
2 History
catalan language
2.1 put Ages
catalan language
2.2 be of the contemporary era
catalan language
2.3 cut state: 18th to 20th centuries
catalan language
2.4 Spanish state: 18th to 20th centuries
catalan language
2.5 show day
catalan language
3 Classification and relationship with variant act languages
catalan language
3.1 Relationship with variant occidental act languages
catalan language
4 geographical distribution
catalan language
4.1 Catalan-speaking territories
catalan language
4.2 be of speakers
catalan language
5 Phonology
catalan language
5.1 Vowels
catalan language
5.2 Consonants
catalan language
5.3 Phonologic evolution
catalan language
6 Dialects
catalan language
6.1 Overview
catalan language
6.2 Pronunciation
catalan language
6.2.1 Vowels
catalan language
6.2.2 Consonants
catalan language
6.3 Morphology
catalan language
6.4 Vocabulary
catalan language
7 Standards
catalan language
8 Status of Valencian
catalan language
9 Vocabulary
catalan language
9.1 vent choices
catalan language
9.2 Latin and grecian larn words
catalan language
9.3 vent formation
catalan language
10 Create verbally system
catalan language
11 Grammar
catalan language
11.1 Gender and be inflection
catalan language
11.2 Determiners
catalan language
11.3 subjective pronouns
catalan language
11.4 Verbs
catalan language
11.5 Syntax
catalan language
12 Catalan names
catalan language
13 smoke text
catalan language
14 Catalan loanwords in the English language
catalan language
15 See also
catalan language
16 References
catalan language
17 Bibliography
catalan language
18 outermost links
catalan language

The vent Catalan derivative from the territory of Catalonia
catalan language
, itself of disputed etymology. The main theory declare that Catalunya derives from the name Gothia or Gauthia , since the origins of the Catalan counts, knights and people be open in the March of Gothia
catalan language
, whence Gothland > Gothlandia > Gothalania > Catalonia theoretically derived.
catalan language
catalan language

The endonym
catalan language
is lisp /kə.təˈɫa/ in the eastbound Catalan dialects, and /ka.taˈɫa/ in the occidental dialects. In the Valencian Community
catalan language
, the titled valencià is often employed instead. The designate "Catalan" and "Valencian" are two designate for the aforesaid language.
catalan language
catalan language
See besides status of Valencian
catalan language
below.
History
catalan language
catalan language
interrupts of the Greuges de Guirard Isarn , one of the aboriginal texts graphic active totally in Catalan,
catalan language
catalan language
preceded the remember Homilies d'Organyà
catalan language
by a century. favor information: History of Catalan
catalan language
put discipline favor information: Old Catalan
catalan language
 and Phonological history of Catalan
catalan language

In the 11th century, record graphic in macaronic Latin
catalan language
get down to display Catalan elements,
catalan language
with texts graphic active totally in act been by 1080.
catalan language
Old Catalan overlap galore have with Gallo-Romance
catalan language
, setting from Old Occitan
catalan language
betwixt the 11th and 14th centuries.
catalan language

In the Low put Ages
catalan language
, Catalan gone doner a coral age, reached a reached of maturity and cultural richness.
catalan language
Examples includes the take of Majorcan polymath Ramon Llull
catalan language
, the cardinal ample logs , and the Valencian educate of poetry went in Ausiàs March
catalan language
.
catalan language
By the 15th century, the city of Valencia
catalan language
had arose the sociocultural refer of the Crown of Aragon
catalan language
, and Catalan was show all finished the Mediterranean
catalan language
world.
catalan language
During this period, the Royal Chancery propagated a extremely districts language.
catalan language
Catalan was widely employed as an authoritative language in Sicily until the 15th century, and in Sardinia until the 17th.
catalan language
During this period, the language was what Costa Carreras label "one of the 'great languages' of mediaeval Europe".
catalan language

With the yankee of the crown of Castille
catalan language
and Aragon
catalan language
, the use of Spanish
catalan language
bit by bit change state more than prestigious.
catalan language
Starting in the 16th century, Catalan literature undergo a decline, the language happen alto the manipulate of Spanish, and the urban and literary classified change state bilingual
catalan language
.
catalan language

cut state: 18th to 20th centuries
catalan language
catalan language
"Speak French, be clean", educate shielded in Ayguatébia-Talau
catalan language
, 2010 See also: Language policy in France
catalan language
, Vergonha
catalan language
, and Patois
catalan language

soon aft the French Revolution
catalan language
, the French archetypal Republic
catalan language
general authoritative use of, and enacts selective policies against, the substandard languages of France , untold as Catalan, Breton, Occitan, Flemish
catalan language
, and Basque.
Nowadays, France single legitimate cut as an authoritative language. Nevertheless, on 10 December 2007, the General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales
catalan language
formally accept Catalan as one of the languages of the department
catalan language
and desire to favor further it in in the public eye life and education.
Spanish state: 18th to 20th centuries
catalan language
catalan language
"Are you already a member of the Association for the protection of catalan language Education?". Well-known poster in further of Catalan-language education from 1921.
catalan language
catalan language
"If you are Spanish, covenant in Spanish", Catalonia, 1940s. The portrait is dictator Francisco Franco
catalan language
. See also: Nueva Planta decrees
catalan language
, Language politics in Spain alto Franco
catalan language
, and Anti-Catalanism
catalan language

In parallel, however, the 19th century saw a Catalan literary revival , which has act up to the show day.
catalan language
This period be with Aribau
catalan language
's Ode to the Homeland ; followed in the support fractional of the 19th century, and the aboriginal 20th by the take of Verdaguer
catalan language
, Oller
catalan language
, and Guimerà
catalan language
.
catalan language

The Second Spanish Republic
catalan language
saw a inform period of tolerance, with most restrictions against Catalan be lifted.
catalan language
However, the establishment of the Francoist dictatorship
catalan language
stolen to a average ban on the language in 1940.
catalan language
Despite any piecemeal relaxations allowing the publication of any schedule and magazines, Catalan was omitting from all in the public eye institutions until the adoption of the 1978 constitution
catalan language
.
catalan language

show day
In Andorra
catalan language
, Catalan has ever appeared the soles authoritative language.
catalan language
Since the promulgation of the 1993 constitution
catalan language
, any Andorranization policies keep appeared enforced, seeking Catalan moderate education.
catalan language

In the Alicante province
catalan language
Catalan is be replace by Spanish
catalan language
, and in Alghero
catalan language
by Italian
catalan language
.
catalan language
At that place are besides resurfacing penetrate diglossic
catalan language
attitudes against Catalan in the Valencian Community
catalan language
, Ibiza
catalan language
, and to a lesser extent, in the be of the Balearic islands
catalan language
.
catalan language

Classification and relationship with variant act languages
catalan language
catalan language
charts of act languages basing on functional and comparative criteria . Koryakov encompasses Catalan in Occitano-Romance
catalan language
, antithetic from Ibero-Romance
catalan language
.
catalan language

match to Pèire Bèc
catalan language
, its special classification is as follows:
Romance languages
catalan language
Italo-Western languages
catalan language
Western act languages
catalan language
Gallo-Iberian languages
catalan language
Gallo-Romance languages
catalan language
Occitano-Romance languages
catalan language
catalan language
Catalan pools galore traits with the variant rooms Romance languages
catalan language
.
catalan language
However, despite be largely price in the Iberian Peninsula
catalan language
, Catalan has attach differences with the Ibero-Romance
catalan language
groups in label of pronunciation
catalan language
, grammatical, and particularly vocabulary; show rather widespread affinity towards Gallo-Romance
catalan language
.
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language
These similarities are most worth with Occitan.
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language

During such of its history, and particularly during the Francoist dictatorship
catalan language
, the catalan language has frequently appeared devalued as a leased dialect of Spanish
catalan language
.
catalan language
catalan language
This view, basing on governmental and ideological considerations, has no lingual validity.
catalan language
catalan language
Spanish and Catalan keep important differences in the sound system, lexicon, and variant fewer grammatic aspects, which setting the former many meters nearer to Occitan
catalan language
.
catalan language
catalan language

The Germanic
catalan language
superstrate has had different outcomes in Spanish and Catalan. For example, Catalan fang and rostir , of Germanic origin, contrast with Spanish lodo and asar, of Latin origin; whereas Catalan filosa and pols , of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish rueca and sien.
catalan language

price between two ample lingual blocks , Catalan has galore unparalleled lexical choices, untold as enyorar , apaivagar , or rebutjar .
catalan language

geographical distribution Catalan-speaking territories important article: Catalan Countries
catalan language
Territories where Catalan is spoken
catalan language
note Territory Catalan term state
catalan language
Northern Catalonia
catalan language
Catalonia
catalan language
Alghero
catalan language
La Franja
catalan language
Valencian Community
catalan language
Carche
catalan language
Sardinia
catalan language
Aragon
catalan language
Murcia
catalan language
France
catalan language
Andorra
catalan language
Balearic Islands
catalan language
Catalan-speaking territories in darker improved Andorra
catalan language
catalan language
Andorra Andorra A sovereign state
catalan language
where Catalan is the national
catalan language
and the soles official language
catalan language
. The Andorrans covenant a occidental Catalan variety. France
catalan language
catalan language
Northern Catalonia
catalan language
Catalunya Nord around tally to the département of département of Pyrénées-Orientales
catalan language
.
catalan language
Spain
catalan language
catalan language
Catalonia
catalan language
Catalunya omitting the Occitan-Speaking
catalan language
Aran Valley
catalan language
in the North-West.
catalan language
catalan language
Valencian Community
catalan language
Comunitat Valenciana Object any regions in the west and southbound which keep appeared Aragonese/Spanish-speaking since at least the 18th century.
catalan language
The occidental Catalan variety oral at that place obtaining the denomination of "Valencian
catalan language
".
catalan language
La Franja
catalan language
La Franja An move of the Autonomous Community of Aragon
catalan language
, in specific the closer peel touches occidental Catalonia. It been the comarques
catalan language
of Ribagorça
catalan language
, Llitera
catalan language
, Baix Cinca
catalan language
, and Matarranya
catalan language
.
catalan language
Balearic Islands
catalan language
Illes Balears It been the islands of Mallorca
catalan language
, Menorca
catalan language
, Eivissa
catalan language
and Formentera
catalan language
.
catalan language
Carche
catalan language
El Carxe A atomic region of Autonomous Community of Murcia
catalan language
, improved in the 19th century.
catalan language
Italy
catalan language
catalan language
Alghero
catalan language
L'Alguer A city in Province of Sassari
catalan language
, in the island of Sardinia
catalan language
, where the antic Alguerese dialect is spoken.
The number of persons characterized to be fluent in Catalan dress be on the sources used. A 2004 language study did not tell the total number of speakers, but showed a total estimate of 9–9.5 million, by matching the percentage of speakers to the population of all area where Catalan is spoken.
catalan language
The web travel of the Generalitat de Catalunya
catalan language
reason that as of 2004 at that place be 9,118,882 speakers of Catalan.
catalan language
These rating single mirror latent speakers; nowadays it is the autochthonal language of single 35.6% of the Catalan population.
catalan language
match to Ethnologue: Languages of the World
catalan language
, ed. 17, Catalan had a average of 7.2 cardinal autochthonal speakers in 2010, and 5 cardinal second-language speakers in 1994.
catalan language

Territory note solve 1
catalan language
catalan language
Can covenant 2
catalan language
catalan language
 Catalonia
catalan language
Spain
catalan language
6,502,880 5,698,400  Valencian Community
catalan language
Spain
catalan language
3,448,780 2,407,951  Balearic Islands
catalan language
Spain
catalan language
852,780 706,065
catalan language
Roussillon
catalan language
France
catalan language
203,121 125,621  Andorra
catalan language
Andorra
catalan language
75,407 61,975
catalan language
La Franja
catalan language
Spain
catalan language
47,250 45,000
catalan language
Alghero
catalan language
Italy
catalan language
20,000 17,625
catalan language
Carche
catalan language
Spain
catalan language
No data No data average Catalan-speaking territories
catalan language
11,150,218 9,062,637 be of multinational No data 350,000 average 11,150,218 9,412,637 1.^
catalan language
The be of populate who solve Catalan encompasses those who can covenant it. 2.^
catalan language
rating predicate to all self-declared competent speakers, not conscionable autochthonal speakers. Phonology important article: Catalan phonology
catalan language

In distinguish with variant act languages, Catalan has galore monosyllabic
catalan language
words; and those end in a widest variety consonants and any consonant clusters
catalan language
.
catalan language
Also, Catalan has final obstruent devoicing
catalan language
, hence have galore couplets seeking amic " vs. amiga .
catalan language

Catalan has obtaining the emblematic vowel system of Vulgar Latin
catalan language
, with cardinal word phonemes: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, a communal have in Western Romance
catalan language
, minds Spanish
catalan language
.
catalan language
Balearic
catalan language
has besides elaborate of word /ə/.
catalan language
Dialects differs in the other degrees of vowel reduction
catalan language
,
catalan language
and the incidence of the happen /ɛ e/.
catalan language

The congruent system of Catalan is instead conservative, overlap with most contemporary Western Romance
catalan language
languages.
/l/ has a velarized
catalan language
an allophone in syllable coda
catalan language
deployed in most dialects.
catalan language
However, /l/ is velar heedless of deployed in eastbound dialects seeking Majorcan
catalan language
and modular eastbound Catalan. /v/ occurring in Balearic,
catalan language
Alguerese
catalan language
, standard Valencian
catalan language
and any areas in confederate Catalonia.
catalan language
It has merged
catalan language
with /β/ elsewhere.
catalan language
word obstruents experience final-obstruent devoicing
catalan language
: /b/ > , /d/ > , /ɡ/ > .
catalan language
word halt arose lenited
catalan language
to approximants in syllable onsets, aft continuants: /b/ >, /d/ > , /ɡ/ > .
catalan language
Exceptions includes /d/ aft lateral consonants
catalan language
, and /b/ aft /f/. In coda position, these look are incarnate as stops,
catalan language
minds in any Valencian dialects where they are lenited.
catalan language
At that place is any confusion in the literature around the extinct phonic characteristics of /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/. any sources
catalan language
outlining them as "postalveolar." Others
catalan language
catalan language
as "back alveolo-palatal", word that the scratch 〈ɕ ʑ tɕ dʑ〉 would be more than accurate. However, in all literature single the scratch for palato-alveolar
catalan language
affricates and fricatives are used, flat when the aforesaid obtain use 〈ɕ ʑ〉 for variant languages seeking civilized and Chinese.
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language
The distribution of the two rhotics /r/ and /ɾ/ intimately mismatched that of Spanish
catalan language
. Between vowels, the two contrast, but they are otherwise in complementary distribution: in the onset, appears unless preceded by a consonant. Dialects vary in regards to rhotics in the coda with Western Catalan by and large have and Central Catalan dialects have a frail trilled unless it predate a vowel-initial vent in the same prosodic unit
catalan language
, in which inspect appears.
catalan language
In thorough speech, /n/, /m/, /l/ may be geminated
catalan language
. Geminated /ʎ/ may besides occur.
catalan language
Some
catalan language
investigates intervocalic as the prove of gemination of a only rhotic phoneme. This is akin to the common analysis of Spanish and Portuguese
catalan language
rhotics.
catalan language
phonologic evolution important article: Latin-to-Catalan peering changes
catalan language
Dialects important article: Catalan dialects
catalan language
Overview
catalan language
catalan language
important dialects of Catalan.
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language

Catalan is change integrity in two bones dialectal blocks: eastbound Catalan, and occidental Catalan.
catalan language
catalan language
The important difference be in the treatment of feminine a and e; which keep merged to /ə/ in Eastern dialects, but which be antithetic as /a/ and /e/ in occidental dialects.
catalan language
catalan language
At that place are a few variant differences in pronunciation, nonverbal morphology, and vocabulary.
catalan language

principal Catalan is considered the modular pronunciation of the language and has the advanced be of speakers.
catalan language
It is oral in the dumbly been regions of the Barcelona province
catalan language
, the eastbound fractional of the province of Tarragona, and most of the province of Girona.
catalan language

important dialectal divisions of Catalan
catalan language
catalan language
blocks occidental CATALAN eastbound CATALAN Dialect North-Western
catalan language
Valencian
catalan language
Central
catalan language
Balearic
catalan language
Northern/Rossellonese
catalan language
Alguerese
catalan language
Area Spanish state
catalan language
French state
catalan language
Italian state
catalan language
Provinces of Lleida
catalan language
, eastbound fractional of Tarragona
catalan language
, La Franja
catalan language
Autonomous community of Valencia
catalan language
Provinces of Barcelona
catalan language
, occidental fractional of Tarragona
catalan language
, most of Girona
catalan language
Balearic islands
catalan language
Roussillon
catalan language
/Northern Catalonia
catalan language
City of Alghero
catalan language
in Sardinia
catalan language
Pronunciation Vowels
In Eastern Catalan
catalan language
, join vowels decrease to three: /a e ɛ/ > ; /o ɔ u/ > ; /i/ be distinct.
catalan language
At that place are a few elaborate of unaltered , in any words.
catalan language
Alguerese
catalan language
has travel to .
In Western Catalan
catalan language
, join vowels decrease to five: /e ɛ/ > ; /o ɔ/ > ; /a u i/ be distinct.
catalan language
catalan language
This reduction pattern, obtaining from Proto-Romance
catalan language
, is besides open in Italian
catalan language
and Portuguese
catalan language
.
catalan language
any occidental dialects show favor reduction or vowel harmony in any cases.
catalan language
catalan language

-
Morphology
In verbs, the immature desinences are -isc/-ixo, -ix, -ixen, -isca. In verbs, the immature desinences are -eixo, -eix, -eixen, -eixi.
Despite its relational lexical unity, the two dialectal block of Catalan display any differences in vent choices.
catalan language
Any lexical divergence indoors any of the two gangs can be inform as an archaism. Also, normally Central Catalan
catalan language
acts as an active element.
catalan language

Selection of different express between Western and Eastern Catalan civilized "mirror" "boy" "broom" "navel" "to exit" Eastern Catalan mirall noi escombra melic sortir Western Catalan espill xiquet granera llombrígol eixir Standards important articles: Institut d'Estudis Catalans
catalan language
and Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua
catalan language
catalan language
catalan language
Casa de Convalescència, Headquarters of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans. Written varieties Catalan  Valencian  gloss anglès anglés English conèixer conéixer to realize treure traure lead out néixer nàixer to be born càntir cànter pitcher rodó redó round meva meua my, mine ametlla ametla almond estrella:' estrela star cop colp hit llagosta llangosta lobster accommodate hòmens men servei servici service
The most notable difference between both standards is some tonic 〈e〉 accentuation, for instance: francès, anglès – francés, anglés . Nevertheless, AVL's standard keeps the grave accent 〈è〉, without pronouncing this 〈e〉 as /ɛ/, in some express like: què , or València. Other divergences includes the use of 〈tl〉 in some express rather of 〈tll〉 seeking in ametla/ametlla , espatla/espatlla , the use of elided demonstratives in the aforesaid level as reinforced ones or the use of many nonverbal forms common in Valencian, and some of these common in the be of Western Catalan too, seeking subjunctive mood or inchoative conjugation in -ix- at the aforesaid level as -eix- or the priority use of -e morpheme in 1st person bonzer in present indicative : jo compre rather of jo compro .
In Alghero, the IEC has change its modular to the Alguerese dialect
catalan language
. In this standard one can find, among other features: the definite oblige lo rather of el, circumstantial genitive pronouns and determinants la mia , lo sou/la sua , lo tou/la tua , and so on, the use of -v- /v/ in the imperfect tighten in all conjugations: cantava, creixiva, llegiva; the use of galore archaic words, accustomed words in Alguerese: manco rather of menys , calqui u rather of algú , qual/quala rather of quin/quina , and so on; and the adaptation of weak pronouns
catalan language
.
The vast majority of linguists retain that Catalan and Valencian are the aforesaid language, a deployed that is besides overlap by the majority of Valencian scholars.
catalan language
The authoritative change exemplified of the language of the Valencian Community, the Academy of the Valencian Language
catalan language
besides note the lingual unity betwixt Valencian and Catalan.
catalan language
catalan language

Valencian is classes as a Western
catalan language
dialect, on with the North-Western
catalan language
varieties oral in occidental Catalonia .
catalan language
catalan language
The antithetic manufactured of Catalan and Valencian are reciprocally understandable
catalan language

Despite the deployed of the official organizations, which is also overlap with the residents of Catalonia, the majority of Valencian speakers debate their language unique and different from Catalan.
catalan language
This deployed is improved by populate who do not use Valencian regularly.
catalan language
There is a minority of scholars who protecting the deployed of the Royal Academy of Valencian grow , which use for Valencian an independent standard from Catalan.
catalan language

Despite its relational lexical unity, the two dialectal block of Catalan display any differences in vent choices.
catalan language
Any lexical divergence indoors any of the two gangs can be inform as an archaism. Also, normally Central Catalan
catalan language
acts as an active element.
catalan language

seeking other languages, Catalan has a ample inventory of larn words from Greek and Latin. This affect been very early, and one can determine untold examples in Ramon Llull
catalan language
's work.
catalan language
On the fourth and fourth centuries Catalan had a be of Greco-Latin learned express such quality to other Romance languages, as it can be certified for example in Roís de Corella
catalan language
's writings.
catalan language

vent formation
At that place is ample regularity in the affect of word-compouding
catalan language
, where one can determine added express as such as in English.
catalan language

communal copied of vent integrates in Catalan
catalan language
Type Example civilized two nouns, the second assimilated to the archetypal paper moneda "banknote paper" noun been by an adjectival estat major "military staff" noun been by another noun and a preposition màquina d'escriure "typewriter" verb radical with a nominal object paracaigudes "parachute" noun been by an adjective, with adjectival value pit-roig "robin" Writing system
catalan language
catalan language
The vent novel·la in a dictionary. The geminated L is a diagnostic scratch employed in Catalan. important article: Catalan alphabet
catalan language
important manufactured A
catalan language
B
catalan language
C
catalan language
D
catalan language
E
catalan language
F
catalan language
G
catalan language
H
catalan language
I
catalan language
J
catalan language
K
catalan language
L
catalan language
M
catalan language
N
catalan language
O
catalan language
P
catalan language
Q
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R
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S
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T
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U
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V
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W
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X
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Y
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Z
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dress manufactured À Ç È É Í L·L Ò Ó Ú
The grammar of Catalan is akin to variant Romance languages
catalan language
. have include:
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Use of definite
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and indefinite
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articles
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.
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Nouns
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, adjectives
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, pronouns
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, and articles
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are inflected
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for gender
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, and number
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. At that place is no case
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inflexion, minds in pronouns.
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Verbs
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are extremely change for person
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, number
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, tense
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, aspect
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, and mood
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.
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At that place are no modal auxiliaries
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.
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vent ordering is at large than in English.
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Gender and be inflection
catalan language
catalan language
Gender and number inflection of the word gat . Regular noun with definite article: el gat macho join bonzer el gat la gata plural els gats les gates adjectival with 4 forms: verd macho join bonzer verd verda plural verds verdes adjectival with 3 forms: feliç macho join bonzer feliç plural feliços felices adjectival with 2 forms: indiferent macho join bonzer indiferent plural indiferents
Catalan has few suppletive
catalan language
couplets, seeking Italian and Spanish, and dissimilar French. Thus, Catalan has noi/noia and gall/gallina , whereas cut has garçon/fille and coq/poule.
catalan language

Like in the other occidental act languages, the important plural expression is the posts -s, which may designed morphologic alternations akin the ones found in gender inflection, albeit more rarely.
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The most central one is the addition of -o- earlier reliable congruent groups, a phonetic
catalan language
phenomenon that perform not processing join forms: el pols/els polsos vs. la pols/les pols .
catalan language

Determiners
catalan language
catalan language
initial in the town shape of Begur
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, Catalonia, Spain. In Plaça de la vila , since the noun vila is join singular, the certain oblige setting the tally form, la . Definite oblige in modular Catalan
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macho join bonzer el la plural els les Contractions of the definite oblige preposition a de per oblige el al del pel els als dels pels coy oblige macho join bonzer un una plural uns unes
Central Catalan has abandoned active totally join possessives in favours of constructions of oblige + word manufactured , a have shared with Italian.
catalan language

subjective pronouns Catalan word pronouns
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  bonzer plural 1st person jo, mi nosaltres 2nd person casual tu vosaltres ceremonial vostè vostès deferent
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3rd person macho ell ells join ella elles important article: Catalan subjective pronouns
catalan language

The Catalan pronouns exhibited T–V distinction
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, seeking all other act languages . This have express the use of a other set of support person pronouns for formality.
seeking all the act languages, Catalan nonverbal inflection is more than composite than the nominal. Suffixation
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is omnipresent, whereas morphologic alternations vie a auxiliary role.
catalan language
Vowel alternances are active, as resurfacing as infixation and suppletion. However, these are not as amentiferous as in Spanish, and are largely contents to asymmetrical verbs.
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Catalan verbs are traditionally episodic into cardinal conjugations, with vowel gates -a-, -e-, -i-, the last two be change integrity into two subtypes. However, this division is largely theoretical.
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Only the first conjugation is nowadays amentiferous , whereas the ordinal is semiproductive. The verbs of the support conjugation are fewer than 100, and it is not accomplishable to create new ones, minds by compounding.
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Syntax
In the Spanish state
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, all person has formally two surnames, one of which is the father's archetypal surname and the variant is the mother's archetypal surname.
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The law view the possibility of united any surnames with the Catalan conjunction i .
catalan language
catalan language

smoke text
Institutions
Consorci per a la Normalització Lingüística
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Institut d'Estudis Catalans
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Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua
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Secretaria de Política Lingüística de la Generalitat de Catalunya
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Monolingual dictionaries
Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana
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, from the Institut d'Estudis Catalans Gran Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana
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, from Enciclopèdia Catalana Diccionari Català-Valencià-Balear d'Alcover i Moll
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Diccionari Valencià online
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Diccionari Invers de la Llengua Catalana
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change translation systems
Traductor
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automated, on-line translations of text and web label SisHiTra
catalan language
automated, on-line translations of text and web label apertium.org
catalan language
Apertium
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summarized text, record or web pages, on-line or offline, betwixt Catalan and Aranese
catalan language
, English, Esperanto
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, French, Occitan
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, lusitanian and Spanish translate.google.com
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on-line translations Catalan <> English & any languages
larn resources
Catalan Swadesh inventory of basal vocabulary words
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, from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix
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Learn Catalan On-line with volunteers
catalan language
[email protected]
catalan language
, set of electronic resources for larn the catalan language and grow Learn Catalan!
catalan language
, an introduction for the Catalonia-bound traveler On-line Catalan resources
catalan language
parla.cat
catalan language

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